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게일(J. Gale)의 『텬로력뎡』과 김준근의 풍속삽도

James Gale’s Translation of Pilgrim’s Progress and Kim Jun-geun’s Illustrations

신학논단 v.60 , 2010년, pp.63 - 91   http://dx.doi.org/10.17301/tf.2010.60..003003

When in 1895 James Gale, a Canadian missionary, translated John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress into Korean, with illustrations by Gisan(箕山)Kim Jun-guen (金俊根), the achievement marked one of the most important events in Korean mission history. The book has subsequently become a major publication covering missionary activities in Korea.In recent years, various scholarly works concerned with this translation have been published in the fields of Korean Language and Art History. But there hasn’t been a noticable research on this book from theological perspective has appeared so far.Gale arrived in Choson in 1888 and spent the next three years learning the Korean language and classics. In 1892, Gale initiated the translation of the New Testament and Pilgrim’s Progress. In 1894, he requested Jun-geun Kim, a genre painter, to draw illustrations for the translation of Pilgrim’s Progress. Finally, the Korean version of Pilgrim’s Progress was published in 1895.In his work, Gale translated the words “God” and the “Lord” to Ha-na-nim, the traditional name of god in Korean. Eleven years later,Ha-na-nim became the official name for God in the Korean protestant church.Apparently, Gale decided on the subjects and contents to be illustrated in the translation, asking Kim to draw these in a traditional Korean style. Thus, the British costume and the various scenery of the nineteenth century depicted in the original book of Pilgrim’s Progress were replaced with the contemporary Korean illustrations. For example, the Korean-like Jesus is wearing Gat and Durumagi, the traditional hat and overcoat; the figure of angels with two wings in the original illustrations now appears as an indigenous celestial man or maiden; and the scenery of the Kingdom of Heaven appears as the equivalent Taoist paradise conceived in local religious imagination.In summary, Gale’s work may be criticized as an example of immoderate – perhaps excessive – syncretism. But it should not be disregarded that the missionary’s intent was to build a point of contact between the Gospel and the indigenous people without any understanding of Christianity. Thus, he took the decisive step to replace the unfamiliar concepts and symbols of the original book with indigenous ones in order to accommodate Korean symbols and the people’s pride in their cultural heritage.

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