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논문 상세정보

한국 축제 전통의 지속 양상과 축제성의 재인식

Continuous Conditions of Korean Festival Tradition and New Understanding of Festival Property

비교민속학 no.42 , 2010년, pp.11 - 56  

It is urgent to post-westernize for creativity of festival research. Post-westernization should have a new attempt in data and methods. It should escape from the western festival data and festival theories. Korean festival data is found from tradition of Byulshin-Gut continued from ancient seasonal festival to modern times. As festival property found from ancient harvest ceremony, there are four keywords- ‘men and women of all ages’, ‘community singing and dancing’, ‘open through day and night’ and ‘drinking, singing and dancing every day’. There is ‘harvest ceremony as a national gut’, ‘Nonggyungsipilgi(農耕始畢期) as a festival period’, ‘transcendental deity as an object of ritual’, ‘art form as a performance activity’ and ‘human liberalization as an innovative campaign’.Considering festival on the basis of the above, the study could see that traditional festival had continued as a village gut. Only, village gut and nation gut have differences in social scale, system and conditions of the times. Therefore, Hahoi Byulshin-Gut has independence differing from ancient nation gut as a traditional village gut in the medieval times. Thus, in Byulshin-Gut, ritual rebellion takes place as an innovative activity reforming and satirizing privilege in status, a contradiction in the medieval system. Innovative rebellion campaign becomes a dynamic force for people’s revolution.Considering the four keywords in festival, modern festival created newly in the present times is also discovered. The group cheer of ‘Red Devils’ cheering World Cup soccer games is a new form of street festival and citizen festival beyond simple sports culture. The candle assembly, a demonstration against import of beef, is another modern festival culture in the same context as the group cheer of ‘Red Devils’. Although the candle demonstration didn’t claim to advocate festival and was not planned as festival, it had more festival property than any festival, considering that citizens enjoyed satire and jeer collectively by revolting against political authority.The problem is to be type and practice of power in festival. Integrating it as logic of power, festival is that the masses with basic rights realize the world of liberalization by dismantling and turning over power in privilege of the ruling class with vested rights, exercising their rights as a sovereign. Therefore, revolution of festival is contrasted with revolution. If revolution is to realize the turning over of substantial system for a short time as a historical event, the revolution of festival is to realize the turning over of a mock system for a long time as a cultural tradition. Therefore, festival and revolution are two axes of social changes.Because of the revolution of festival, analysis on functions of festival and recognition about value of festival are contrary to each other. If the function of festival is regarded as balloon effect relieving dissatisfaction of the masses, it is regarded as a function to advocate a system. However, if it is regarded that the awakened masses dismantle vested interests’ power, it is analyzed that it has a function to reform a system. The original function of festival depends on festival recognition of vested interests in privilege and the masses exercising sovereignty. Vested interests strive to control festival by regarding it to be rebellious. On the other hand, the masses regard festival turning over order of top and bottom and pursuing anarchy to be a world of human liberalization by recognizing that an irrational social system is to be rebellious. Therefore, it gets obvious in what viewpoint festival researchers should analyze function and value of festival.

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