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논문 상세정보

고려 현종대 사상과 문화정책

Thought and Cultural Policy during the Reign of King Hyeonjong in Goryeo

한국중세사연구 no.29 , 2010년, pp.213 - 263  
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초록

The reign(1009~1032) of King Hyeonjong in Goryeo is the point of time when two generations were changed because about 70 years had passed following the unification of Later Three Kingdoms. It was the time of requiring the establishment of new direction, which was advanced one-step further because of being the time after suffering trial & error and conflicts surrounding the nation’s administration. The reign of King Hyeonjong was invaded twice by the Kitan. Tension of both countries between Goryeo and the Kitan was continued all the way. King Hyeonjong had legitimacy of continuing the throne, but had unique experience that cannot help living as a Buddhist monk. This fact is judged to have importantly influenced the direction of a thought and culture during the reign of King Hyeonjong.There were many government officials who have considerable capability during the reign of King Hyeonjong. Among those people, Gang Gam-chan․Choi Hang․Choi Sa-wi․Wang Ga-do, who belong to Baehyanggongshin(配享功臣), can be said to be representative figures. While these people had Confucianism as a common denominator, the interested sphere or the target with the aim of being reformed was different. Choi Hang or Choi Sa-wi showed very favorable position for Buddhism. A native place was different with 3 people from the central area and with Choi Hang from Gyeongju.The government administration was based fundamentally on the Confucian ideology. The emphasis on Sajik or Taemyo(太廟) and the direct cultivation of Jeokjeon(籍田) indicate that the government administration is being managed on the basis of the Confucian ideology. The Confucian ideology was expressed by all in what a king mentioned Noneo(論語) and Yegi(禮記) in Gyo(敎) commanded by the king, what emphasized a king’s Sushin(修身) when Jaei takes place, what speaks of observance of Wolryeong(月令), and what positively asserts the farm encouragement policy.It was positively considering even on Buddhism. Yeondeunghoe and Palgwanhoe, which had been suspended since the reign of King Seongjong, were revived. Several kinds of Buddhist events were held. Hyeonhwasa temple and Junggwangsa temple were founded. A high priest was ever appointed as Wangsa and Guksa. The Buddhist circles had been treated consistently, but were controlled and restricted when being performed behavior unmindful of its duty. Positively applying Buddhism to the government administration implies what isn't absorbed in the Confucian supremacy and what doesn’t sympathize with the view of the whole world centering on China. Furthermore, civilians’ support was expected by positively recommending Posi(布施) on civilians. A situation called war desperately required a help of grass-roots.The reign of King Hyeonjong was emphasized Seogyeong and was arranged experience since King Taejo. Seogyeong had been performed a sacrificial rite toward King Dongmyeong and Wang Geon, the Founder of Goryeo Dynasty. King Taejo and kings of many generations were highly revered. It gave priority even to meritorious retainers of many generations. In the meantime, it particularly respected even for several gods such as Sancheon or Sanak(山嶽) related to belief of in grass-roots. This can be said to be what positively recognizes indigenous religion and what stresses indigenous climate. What pushes ahead with policy, which respects emotion and belief of grass-roots in a situation called war, seems to be natural. The cultural policy during the reign of King Hyeonjong was established in the urgent condition, thereby having been able to be sustained for quite a long time without big modification in the policy direction since then. Therefore, Choi Chung(崔冲), who is a contemporary person, said that King Hyeonjong deserves to be called Jungheungju(中興主).

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