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광활한 몽골초원과 흉노인의 생존 - 고고학 증거를 중심으로

The Existence of Xiongnu on Great Mongol Steppe - The Archaeological Evidences -

중앙아시아연구 v.15 , 2010년, pp.29 - 54   http://dx.doi.org/10.29174/cas.2010.15..002
윤형원
초록

The movement of Xiongnu people gave greatly influence to the dominion of world history. Records about ‘Xiongnu’ people were left only partly in the Chinese historical records of their contact with the West through the war. Their vestiges have been discovered in the area without the records of them, but the only way to find out their actual substance is archaeological expedition. Therefore, many countries of both East and West such as Russia, Hungary, France, the U. S., Belgium, Korea and Japan have dispatched the researchers to the Mongol area, once the central area of Xiongnu people, to proceed archaeological survey. Thereupon, in this study I will portray the picture of Xiongnu people who survived in the great steppe based on the archaeological evidences excavated from Mongolia as an extension of the existing studies on the Xiongnu tombs in Mongolia.Xiongnu People: How Xiongnu people who left the great Xiongnu culture on the steppe look like? The faces of two people appearing on the woolen object have eyes, wide nose and long mustache that are impressive. Through the archaeological materials, we can directly meet Xiongnu people via the excavated human skeleton, but in many cases the bones were damaged by tomb robbery or underground animals. In the recent excavations, it is the trend to proceed the study with physical anthropologist because researchers feel keenly the necessity of skeletal analysis. The materials tell that the height of Xiongnu women was 150-167 cm, and that of Xiongnu men was 167-174 cm. The age of death was thirties in women and thirties to forties in men. Also many male were dead in their teens. The fractures of men were because of battles and aged people over sixties were rare. The owner of large tomb is aristocrat who did not do hard work, and the tomb of children followed the status of their parents. Bones outside the wooden coffin might have been the burial of the living with the dead, and those who were buried in the attached tombs are subordinates of the owner of the main tomb. The hole in the skull is related to the medical treatment or religion, and there is a child who died of malnutrition. The serious wear and tear on teeth is because of carnivorous diet. What is important is the co-presence of Mongoloid and European race in the same tumulus, which means the Xiongnu society was multi-raced and multi-cultured one.Food & Cook: The main diet of nomad was meat such as mutton, goat, beef and horseflesh and dairy products. A great deal of animal bone has been excavated from Xiongnu tombs and most of them was sacrifices for funeral rites. The offering food for the owner of the tomb was left in some cases: Cow bones were put in bronze cauldron, sheep bone and rabbit bone were discovered together and sheep ribs were put beside the owner of the tomb. Large jar is a storing vessel. Sometimes grains were excavated from it and alcohol or liquid was stored in it. There is a hole in the lower part of the jar, which seems to be used like today's rice barrel from which the contents are pulled out. Grains were excavated from the inside of a wooden coffin; grains were also in a lacquer ware; sheep bone, grain and vegetables were put in a bronze cauldron. Vessel: The kitchen appliances of nomad can be used indoor, however, in most cases they are fit for field life. Earthenware model of cooking fireplace was excavated. Bronze cauldron, bronze tray, wooden dish, bronze kettle, rice steamer, lacquer ware vessel with inscription (B. C. 2), lacquer ware side-dish box and bowl with two ear for cooking and distributing food were discovered. Iron ladle, tea spoon, wooden spoon, bone chopstick, birch bark vessel were also excavated. Earthenware excavated are bowl, pot, vessel, jar, footed dish, lamp-oil container and steamer etc.Customs & Ornaments Clothing and Clothing Ornaments: Winter cap with earpiece made of pelt and triangle-shaped hat made of silk were excavated. The burial of pigtail in silk pouch me...

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