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인간 평등이념과 근대 인도의 신불교운동

Human Equality Ideology and Neo-Buddhist Movement of Modern India

禪學(선학) no.27 , 2010년, pp.403 - 438  

The purpose of this study is to take a view of modern Indian society to compare with the human equal ideology and in addition, take a view of Neo-Buddhist movement of modern Indian society on the basis of equality from the historical and philosophical viewpoint. The concept of equality, which was introduced to India in the modern age, became the ideological medium of social revolution movement, denying caste system, which has been a chronic social problem. Therefore, there were social changes such as cultural adaptation and there was a new recognition change about the untouchable, who could not belong to Hindu social structure. The social statuses of the untouchable, who suffered from inhuman treatment, caused new interpretation and conflict around Gandhi and Ambedkar. Especially, the effort of Gandhi to admit the untouchable as the sons of God and admit them as the community members of Hindu society was not helpful for improving the ranks of the untouchable. On the contrary, Ambedkar recognized that it was impossible to realize social equalities of the untouchable inside Hindu society and displayed radical dalit movement.I discussed how Ambedkar, who recognized that the caste can't be removed in Hindu society, asserted the justification of Buddhist conversion. In addition, I researched the thought of Ambedkar, who asserted that the untouchable should acquire political, economic and social equality through Neo-Buddhist movement. I observed that modern western thought occupy important position in the ideological trend of Neo-Buddhist movement after concentrating to philosophical model of Neo-Buddhist movement displayed in modern Indian society. Ambedkar, who experienced western education, was affected by a lot of modern western philosophers. Among them, John Dewey and Voltaire gave the greatest effects to him. Although Neo-Buddhist movement shows the trend that it is close to Buddhist philosophy through literature study, it has a weak point that it is not free from the criticism that it distorted traditional Buddhism. Therefore, I reach the conclusion that Neo-Buddhist movement is a social revolution movement, which was displayed through the medium of western thought, in which Buddhist thought was a little bit diluted.

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