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황룡사 장육상의 제작기법에 대한 연구

A Mechanical Approach to the Double-Eight Feet Buddha Statue of Hwangnyongsa

신라사학보 no.23 , 2011년, pp.395 - 438  

This thesis is to examine various aspects of the double-eight(丈六) feet tall bronze buddha image of Hwangnyongsa(皇龍寺) temple which is transmitted by only literary documant in Samgugyusa(三國遺事). For this purpose, a manufactural and structural problem will be considered throughout the stone substructure for huge standing bronze buddha statue which remains at the temple site until now and the fragment of head from statues which is displayed in Gyungju National Museum.On the stone substructure, there is a round groove with two perforations in it. At rear of this round groove, there is one larger square perforation. This figure is very unique one which couldn't be seen at any other small or huge bronze buddha statues in domestic or foreign examples. So, more detail observation of this substructure might help us to imagine the structure of huge buddha statue.Until these days, the two perforation has been guessed to be for dovetails under the buddha's sole to stick while the round groove to fix the leaves of lotus throne. And the larger square perforation behind it has been presumed as a hole of nimbus. But this construction causes some questions.The first question is the perforations are too small to maintain the weight of huge buddha statue which is supposed to weigh approximately 5.8t. By contrast, the rear large perforation is too big to stick a nimbus which is supposed to be made by wood. Further question is weather the leaves of lotus throne really needed to dig a round groove to install it which are not be stressed from the buddha's weight.The new approaching to solve these questions is as following. The round groove is for the bronze throne of same radius. And the two perforations in the round are for a wooden frame to maintain the buddha at the inside of huge statues. So it means the wooden frame links the stone substructure and bronze throne. And the buddha statue itself was standing by not only its two legs but all circular bottom.But the statue has not fully round plane but open the backside because it need to fix the inner and outer cast when melting bronze injected. And this open-back statue has a tendency to fall down to backside, so it should be supported by something from backside. The usage of rear large square perforation is that. A large supporting pillar was sticked to the hole to support the statue.And the weight of huge buddha can be estimated at 5.8t by the comparison with the weight of the buddhist bell of Bongdeoksa(奉德寺) temple. According to Samgugyusa, tatal 120 thousand geun(斤)'s bronze inputted for the bell casting, and the bell measured 18.9t. By this rate, 37 thousand geun for Hwangnyonsa statue can be conversed to 5.8t.It must be considered that the weight of written in Samgukyusa is concerned with the total weight of input bronze for the casting, but the result weight is diminished one by loss during the cast.In the mean time, the hight of buddha statue looks to be defined by Goguryeo ruler. Because the huge seated buddha image of Asukadera(飛鳥寺) which shows a stylistic influence from Goguryeo looks be designed as half of double-eight feet hight buddha and it measured as Goguryeo ruler.At the end, the fact that the huge statue was cast not at the temple site but different place to transport. I think it means that the statue was cast not separately but in a whole mass. Because if it was cast in separately, it did not need to other place and in the temple was the most suitable place to install the each part of statue. But it was cast at "Muningnim(文仍林)". Up to the present, "Muningnim" has been interpreted as a symbolic place of indigenous religion. But as it is explained in Jí-shénzhōu-sānbăo-găntōng-lù(集神州三寶感通錄), a hill was needed for convenience to pull out the statue from a casting pit. So it should be considered at first that "Muningnim" was not only a symbolic place but also a very advantageous place to casting a huge statue in...

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