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고려의 曆法 추이를 통해 본 『고려사』 「曆志」 서문의 검토

A review on the preface of 「Yeokji」, 『Goryeosa』 through the development of Goryeo Calendrial Science

역사학연구 no.47 , 2012년, pp.29 - 70  

This study is purposed to review the preface of 「Yeokji」. 『Goryeosa (History of Goryeo)』 critically through the development of Goryeo calendrical science. This is expected to be a moment to understand the characteristics of Goryeo Calendar System. Jeong In-ji, editor of 「Yeokji」, 『Goryeosa』 says in the preface, “Goryeo did not make calendar system and couldn’t follow Chinese calenda reform”. And also he added “Goryeo used only the Xuanming Calenda of Tang and the Shoushi Calenda of Yuan”. Thus, it needs to verify the editor’s cognition. To do so, firstly Chinese-centered calendrical science is examined to review the development of Goryeo Calenda System, which was universally used in Northeast Asia in the Middle Ages. According to the research, China continuously proclaimed its calendrical science to Goryeo, and Goryeo kept accepting that. But, 「Yeokji」 does not show any words about the acceptance at all. Goryeo used its own calendar system regardless of Chinese astronomy and calendrical science. Thus, it is required to conduct further study on Goryeo calenda system made in Goryeo. The editor of the preface of 「Yeokji」, 『Goryeosa』 looked at the order of calendrical science through the world view of Chinese Calendar system. In addition, he pointed that Goryeo Calenda System could not follow Chinese calenda reform. This is why we try to review the background of the time when 「Yeokji」 was compiled, and to prove there might be another intension in such editor’s cognition. Before the research into the preface of 「Yeokji」, we should notice that the editor was Jeong In-ji in the reign of King Sejong when astronomy and calendrical science was at its peak. That is, the preface of 「Yeokji」 was written in the viewpoint of a Neo-Confucian in Early Choson Dynasty. He saw Goryeo calendrical science in two viewpoints: one is that he evaluated Goryeo Calenda System in the respect of Chinese-centered order of calendrical science; and the other is expression of his pride in experiencing the development of astronomy and calendrical science achieved in the reign of King Sejong. In the special period of King Sejong, he saw Goryeo calendrical science in his special viewpoint. The reason he said, “Goryeo did not make calendar system, and couldn’t follow Chinese calenda reform” was the causality that he included only Xuanming Calenda and Shoushi Calenda in 「Yeokji」. He as an editor could not help defending his compilation of 「Yeokji」 showing only Xuanming Calendar and Shoushi Calenda, by mentioning “Goryeo did not make calendar system, and couldn’t follow Chinese calenda reform”.

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