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테오도어 로만의 “노사 화합 정책”의 구상과 실천(1874~1891): 독일제국 사회정책을 중심으로

The Concept and Practice of “Reconciling Laborer Policy” of Theodor Lohmann in the German Empire(1874-1891)

서양사연구 no.47 , 2012년, pp.31 - 78  

This thesis, focusing on the “reconciling labor policy” of Theodor Lohamn, attempts to analyze the social policy of the German Empire.Lohmann, a high-ranking official in both Prussia and the German Empire,also a devout Lutheran and a member of the Inner Mission, proposed a solution to social problems, integrating a social reform theory into his vision of fulfilling God’s kingdom on earth. In his proposal, the state was to provide moral guidelines for laborers’ awareness of self-responsibility,the notion upon which Lohamann set out to design his blueprint of the social welfare for laborers’ economic wellbeing. This was pivotal to enhancing the laborers’ social responsibility and solidarity, which in turn would contribute to the social unity. Lohmann’s utopia was to be found on such basis.One of the measures Lohmann had considered to achieve his “reconciling labor policy” since 1880, was the idea of social insurance which encountered fierce opposition from Bismarck, the chancellor.Although Lohmann and Bismarck agreed to the need for social policies that check social democracy, their ideas were far from coming to a consensus. Bismarck believed that the minimum annuity insurance could relieve the material shortage of the labor class, hoping it will reduce their dissatisfaction of the regime. Lohmann, indicating that such policy is tentative in nature, however, insisted on a substantial policy that engenders public awareness of perceiving the laboring class as an equal member in the German society. This was the essence of his “reconciling labor policy”,minimizing the social conflicts rising from class antagonism.According to Lohmann, the fair recognition of laborers begins with providing necessary protections and assuring their rights, both of which must be accompanied by the laborers’ own participation. The outcome of his deliberation was crystallized in the principle of social insurance.This meant creating a system in which both employers and employees would exercise their rights on even terms, preventing conflicts over the insurance issue. This, moreover, included establishing a mutual fund as well. Such system would provide a basis for minimum standard of living and reinforce its recipient’s awareness of his social responsibility.In other words, Lohmann’s social insurance policy aimed at coupling the general welfare with laborers’ social responsibility, a necessary condition for social harmony. This required labor protection and the guarantee of labor participation in the fields where their stakes are high. In this regard,Lohmann’s “reconciling labor policy” was a search for a way to incorporate the labor class into the “unfinished empire.”

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