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한국 민주주의의 성찰과 전망

Contemplating Korea's Democracy, and Future Prospect

역사와 현실 no.87 , 2013년, pp.235 - 262  

Korea's democracy can be evaluated and measured by the human right situations. After Liberation, the old regime's legacy was liquidated, but democracy was still difficult to settle in Korea. In such a circumstance that the people lacked political power to form united force from underneath, the ruling class and the establishment kept holding solid autocracy, thereby suppressing the development of democracy and social progress. The workers' right was not protected, and Korea's democracy has been seriously restrained, not only in terms of economic and social rights according to social justice and equality, but also in terms of the right to freedom, the civil and political rights of the people, by the National Security Law. Politically, the successive presidents exerted oppressive authoritarian administration, regardless of constitutional provisions. And some attempted prolonged seizure of power and lifetime presidency by arbitrarily changing the regulations about tenure and limit to the consecutive terms. Democracy began to settle in Korea through pro-democracy movement intended to overcome such authoritarian politics. Rhee Syngman's dictatorship of the 1950s was repelled by April 19 Uprising, and Park Jung-hee's military dictatorship was resisted by the anti-Yushin movement. Against Chun Doo-hwan's New Military Junta, May Gwangju Uprising unfolded. The authoritarian tyranny of the 1980s was overcome by the June Uprising of 1987. Nevertheless, the establishment after the authoritarianism era misused the civil liberty to maximize their exclusive benefit. At present, in a neo-liberalist politics, the capitals and conservative journalism mislead and distort the public opinion by the name of national security and interest, thereby maximizing their political influence. In short, the history of Korean democracy is much of a history of failure as it is a history of success.

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