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평양도읍기 고구려의 성곽방어체계

A Study of Koguryo Fortress Defense System at Pyongyang Capital Period

고고학 v.12 no.3 , 2013년, pp.117 - 147  

This thesis is about the Koguryo fortress defense system at Pongyang capital period. Koguryo moved its capital from Jian to Pyongyang at 427. With the relocation of the capital, the spatial distribution pattern of Koguryo fortresses and its defense systems came to change fundamentally. The Daesung Mountain fortress is 7 km in length, in which foundations for main buildings and a large amount of Koguryo artifacts including roof tiles were found. It indicates that this fortress was used for important defensive purposes when Koguryo moved its capital to Pyongyang. As for an earthen-wall on the plain ground, either the Cheongamni earthen-wall or the Anhak palace is thought of as having been used for that purpose in previous studies.In the mid to late 6th century Pyongyang Castle was built and Koguryo relocated its capital there. It is important to note that one large castle was singly used. This is different from the previous capital fortress system of Koguryo based on the combination of an earthen-walled fortress built on the plain ground and a mountain fortress used for defensive purposes. Pyongyang Castle is 23km round. It was composed of an inner fortress used as a royal palace and an outer fortress used as a residential area. The outer fortress was constructed a ccording to the Lifang system(里坊制).There is a great regional difference in the spatial distribution of Koguryo fortresses. They are clustered around the Liaodong peninsula in the northwestern area. This shows that defense against China was considered most important in Koguryo. Koguryo established primary border defense systems along the Liao River and the western coast of the Liaodong peninsula. In doing so, they constructed fortresses along traffic routes from the Amnok River to Pyongyang in the Liaodong peninsula. Koguryo operated multiple defense systems. In other words, mid- to large-sized mountain fortresses encircling a valley were constructed along main traffic routes and at strategically important places, while mid-sized mountain fortresses encircling a valley and small- to mid-sized mountain fortresses encircling a mountain summit were constructed along secondary traffic routes. Compared with the northwestern area of Koguryo where fortresses were clustered in large numbers for the defense against China, fortresses are sparsely distributed in other regions. A few Koguryo fortresses are distributed in the southern front of Koguryo which was bordered with the Baekje and Silla territory. In the Hwanghae province large-sized mountain fortresses encircling a valley were constructed along traffic routes leading to Pyongyang. In the southern part of the Korean peninsula, on the other hand, small-sized mountain fortresses and hill forts are distributed in large numbers in and around the Imjin-Hantan River basin, Yangju, the Han River basin, and the Geum River basin.

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