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논문 상세정보

1970년대 ‘유언비어’의 불온성

Subversiveness of ‘Rumors’ in the 1970s

역사문제연구 v.18 no.2 , 2014년, pp.187 - 226  

The purpose of this paper is to grasp the context in which rumors were produced andspread in Korean society in the 1970s, and examine the ‘subversiveness’ of rumors in thatcontext. Rumors in the 1970s were in direct defiance of the ‘emergency measures’ of theYushin System that prohibited the fabrication and circulation of rumors. The number ofpeople who were punished by the emergency measures was greatest with respect to thosewho were indicted for spreading rumors, and the government implemented severe punishmentsfor spreading rumor in the late 1970s. Paradoxically, rumors continued to spread.The most distinguished characteristic of rumors is their ‘everydayness.’ Rumors are spreadthrough people’s daily activities such as conversation or letters. This everydayness made itdifficult for the Korean government to maintain control. Daily life provided an optimalcover for subversive action. Although some subversive cases were reported and exposed, itis possible that many more evaded exposure. Daily life was a space where subversivenessand compliance co-existed, indeed.Rumors were spread in proportion to the strong media control of the Yushin System.Most people did not trust the government or the media. This distrust made people disbelievethe government’s attempt to deny certain rumors, and made the plausible aspectsof rumors seem all the more viable. Rumors further aggravated distrust in and complaintsagainst authority in daily life, and were spread through the control of authority based onthe diffused distrust and complaint. This ultimately meant the breakdown of the YushinSystem, which had previously seemed pretty solid. The subversiveness of rumors can beseen in this phenomenon. The Yushin System suppressed resistance ruthlessly in the1970s, but the rumors persisted, promoting further distrust and discontentment and, finallybringing about the breakdown of authority.The fact that plausible stories that could not be heard from government or the media werespread under continual suppression such as the emergency measures was meaningful topeople in and of itself. As distrust in and complaints against the government and the mediapervaded, rumors could easily obtain social consensus leading to a desire for freedomand justice. As social consensus increased, the speed and strength of rumors increased aswell, and the breakdown of authority grew more severe. The subversiveness of rumors inthe 1970s thus became a potential point of resistance against the Yushin System. Thissubversiveness, as a potential of resistance, eventually erupted as actual resistance in the elections and struggles of the late 1970s.

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