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한·일 공적개발원조(ODA) 비교연구-기초교육원조를 중심으로

A Comparative Analysis of the Official Development Assistance(ODA) in South Korea and Japan-Mainly on Basic Education Sector-

일본언어문화 no.31 , 2015년, pp.273 - 291   http://dx.doi.org/10.17314/jjlc.2015..31.014

In 2015, the children unable to go to elementary school will reach up to ca. 72 million, mostly in developing countries. In addition, in 2008 it was shown that around 796 million, about 17% of adults all over the world, didn’t have basic abilities (reading, writing, calculating). It was supposed that two third of them were female. EFA(2011)『グローバルモニタリングレポート 2011: 隠された危機 ―武力紛争と教育―』UNESCO Publishing, pp.11-13 Without the basic abilities, people are unable to be stabilized and to get a job with sufficient pay. If this vicious cycle is not broken out, man cannot emerge from poverty. Therefore, in Official Development Assistance(ODA), basic education is important. The Impotance of basic education is also specified in the second goal of Millennium Development Goals(MDGs), and Education for All(EFA) of United National Educational, Scientiffic and Cultural Oraganization(UNESCO) is also in the same vein. Furthermore, the world bank contributes to the international efforts to improve poverty in developing countries and to develop a sustainable economic society, stating Fast Track Initiative(FTI). Although the ODA for basic education is important like this, the support of Korea for basic education is not sufficient. In 2011, only 9.6 percent of Korean ODA for education was for basic education. Unlike USA or UK, in which over 70% of the support for whole education section is for basic education, in Korea the allocation for basic education is very small. To improve the situation, the basic education section of Japanese ODA which is similar to Korean ODA in respect of enforcement system, policy framework, and ODA goals for basic education has to be analyzed with the comparison between them. Based on the current state and special features achieved with the analysis, the similarity and the difference in ODA for basic education between Korea and Japan have to be studied, and the deducted implication helpful to Korean ODA for basic education has to be discussed. While Korea and Japan have the similar enforcement system, policy framework, and ODA goals for basic education, Korea doesn’t have specific strategy or technology, which reflects the possibility that Korea has brought those of Japan without sufficient consideration. In that respect, Japanese diplomatic policy related to ‘Human Security’ is the essential subject to be considered. Based on the research result, suggestions to improve Korean ODA for basic education were drawn. Foreign assistance system has to become more efficient through the integration of the divided Korean ODA system to improve Korean ODA for basic education. In addition, the financial allocation for basic education needs to be expanded, and the assistance capability to provide both hardware and software, instead of supporting only hardware, has to be achieved. For that, an institutional strategy for evaluating overall Korean ODA has to be discussed at the level of national assembly.

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