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스리랑카 빨리⋅불교학 - 역사적 고찰과 분석

Pāli and Buddhist Studies in Sri Lanka - A Historical Survey and Analysis -

한국불교학 no.76 , 2015년, pp.7 - 38  

The present paper surveys and analyzes Pāli and Buddhist Studies in Sri Lanka from ancient and medieval periods to modern era. If we define Pāli and Buddhist Studies as academic research on Pāli language and the Pāli literatures, then it corresponds to learning (pariyatti) in the Theravāda tradition. In this sense, Pāli and Buddhist Studies started since Theravāda Buddhism transmitted into Sri Lanka from India by Mahinda Thera. Such historical events as debate between Paṃsukūlikas and Dhammakathikas, and writing down of the Pāli canon laid a firm foundation for Pāli and Buddhist studies in modern time. However, Pāli and Buddhist studies in ancient and medieval periods were hardly accessible to the laity because they were mainly conducted by monastics through Bhāṇaka system. Pāli and Buddhist studies in modern era were initiated by the early European scholars who studied Pāli language from Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka, and this was a turning point for globalization and popularization of Pāli and Buddhist studies. At the same time, Buddhist revival or Protestant Buddhism arouse in the late nineteenth century Sri Lanka as a response to British colonialism and Christian missionary activity. This movement not only promoted identities and self-pride among the Sinhalese Buddhists but also encouraged and revitalized Pāli and Buddhist studies on the island. The landmark of modern renaissance of Pāli and Buddhist studies is the birth of two Pirivenas, Vidyodaya Pirivena and Vidyālaṅkāra Pirivena. After independence in 1948 and with the religious and cultural renaissance at the Buddha Jayanti in 1956, Pāli and Buddhist studies had a new beginning. Editions and translations of the Pāli canon and itscommentaries were a key feature of this trend. At present, Pāli and Buddhist studies are conducted mainly by monastic and lay academics in universities, higher academic institutes and learned societies. With the opening of universities, the learning of foreign languages such as English, and studying abroad, a new phase of Pāli and Buddhist studies began which is marked by ingenious combination of traditional and western scholarships. Although philological studies are still popular among Sri Lankan scholars and remain one of the substantial fields in Pāli and Buddhist studies, today conceptual and philosophical studies have reached a high standard in Pāli and Buddhist scholarship. Looking in an overall manner, the future of Pāli and Buddhist studies in Sri Lanka does not seem to be bleak. It is partly because the necessary infra-structure support is being provided by the Government and by many generous private citizens, and partly because there is a continuous flow of foreigners coming to study and practice Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

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