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논문 상세정보

1930년대 도경찰의 ‘치안상황’ 인식과 통제정책 - 『1938년도 강원도 치안상황』을 중심으로

Perception of “Public order situation” and Control policy of local police force in 1930s - Centering on 「Public Order Situations of Kangwon province in 1938」 -

한국사연구 no.171 , 2015년, pp.365 - 402  
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초록

The Police department of Kangwon Province, in 1930s, to control the national and social movements, pushed for strengthening the surveillance and control system. It was to eliminate the base for the nationalist movements, and to strengthen constant control. The main targets for suppression were the farmers’ unions, labor unions, and other left-wing organizations, who were becoming more radicalized under the socialists’ lead. Also, after arresting them, the police pushed ahead with active ‘Ideological guidance program“. The width of the program included the arrested persons, their families, and their local communities. The police demanded the families of the ”Seditious persons“ to guide them, and their families had to show enthusiasm by paying contributions, or joining ”Patriotic Services“. Villages who produced ”Seditious persons“ or ”Socialists“ were branded Suspicious Villages, and were put under special care. It tried to eliminate movements and their bases by pressing communities and families under control. Police department of Kangwon Province also focused on strengthening constant surveillance and guidance system over entire rural society. They tried to use Agrarian Development Movement organization to build public-private surveillance and guidance program, and to maximize the effect of ideological conversion. Agrarian Development Movement-related organizations were rapidly expanded during mid-1930s, and grew into a vast organization, including one tenth of every men in rural areas. And those expanded organizations became basis for the police-led aggressive surveillance, propaganda, and mobilization system after Sino-Japanese war. Nationalist and Socialist movements in Kangwon area were quickly diminished after mid-1930s, and most of gatherings became state-sponsored ones. However, with those achievements, Police department of Kangwon Province haven’t concluded that they succeeded in establishing publick order. The reason were ‘rumors’ without sources, and the criticisms of systems, using legal means. Those realizations were manifested in constant over-control. They fabricated “Ideological Incidents”, and expanded their control system over unofficial social relationships, such as workplaces, schools, and school reunions. In the process, the pain of Chosun people and the stress on State-sponsored organizations went higher. In short, the perception, and the countermeasure of public order situations in 1930s showed not only the suppression of the movement organizations, but also the transition of colonial administration system into the deep-level surveillance and control network.

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