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明ㆍ淸代 福建의 宗族 結集과 宗族 이야기 ― 南靖縣 奎洋莊氏宗族 開基始祖 ‘三郞公 이야기’를 중심으로

Forming of Lineages and Their Stories in Ming-Qing Fujian: Centered on the Story of Dear Sanlang, the Originator of Kuiyang Zhuang Lineage in Nanjing Prefecture

동양사학연구 no.133 , 2015년, pp.315 - 359   http://dx.doi.org/10.17856/jahs.2015.12.133.315

The development of the Kuiyang Zhuang Lineage can be divided into 3 periods according to the criteria of the number of Lineage members, power of wealth, and prosperity in cultural influence. The first (15∼16th century) represents the period (Embryo Stage) when their number, wealth, and cultural or cultural prosperity were far behind those of other Lineages, the second (13th∼14th century) the period (Rising Stage) when the Lineage gradually became exceeding those of other Lineages culminating in the building of their ancestorial shrine, and the third (13/14th∼20th century and up to now) the period (Blooming Stage) when the Lineage exceeded those of other Lineages in all aspects, while the mid 15th century divides the first from the second period, with the third period beginning around the late 17th century. The Lineage originator, Dear Sanlang, of the Kuiyang Zhuang Lineage was a very ordinary man as seen in his name, who settled down in Kuiyang, Nanjing Prefecture in the early 14th century by chance, owing to some topographical divinatory events (or civil war). His descendents got prosperous, and the needs for unifying Lineage members and constructing Lineage symbols representing themselves had aroused with the spread of the forming-Lineage movement around the implementation of Great Rites Controversy(大禮議) as well as the expending economy under the rules of Jiajing and Wanli emperors, the divisions of the Lineage into branches, the unstable domestic and foreign situations such as Japanese pirates or disputes among Lineage members, and the growth of their influences. Thus, Lineage activities had continued such as publishing their genealogy more than 10 times from the mid 15th to 19th century, constructing Grand Ancestrial Shrine and visiting ancestorial shrine activities by Lineage members living in other areas in the 16th century, locating their ancestors’ tombs and replenishing the Grand Ancestrial Shrine in the 17th century, and tidying up linealogy in the 17th and 19th century. Also the constructing of the story of their Lineage originator Dear Sanlang was one of them. In their genealogy, there appeared a ‘Guarding the Song Emperor’ story, stating that Dear Gongcong, the grandfather of Dear Sanlang, settled down in Chaozhou after loyal service for the last emperor of the Song dynasty. It reveals us how come the grandfather of Dear Sanlang had came to settle down on Chaoyang Prefecture, and shows that the Kuiyang Zhuang Lineage is the descendents of a loyal man. But most of their genealogy do not include the story, nor use the expressions such as 'sought refuge', which shows us their reluctance to accept the story. From it, we may see that they thought it was not a reliable story, or that they thought it had no value in using it. But the Zhuang Lineage members living in Guangdong and Pinghe Prefecture eagerly accepted the ‘Guarding the Song Emperor’ story. It seems that they accepted it actively in order to establish their identity and promote status when the Zhuang Lineage members living in Guangdong or Pinghe Prefecture moved to new place in Chaozhou. The most of the story on Dear Sanlang listed on their genealogy states that he had topographical divinatory insight and respectable characteristics, and that enabled him to be accepted as a son in law, and made his descendents prosperous. The first thing that takes our notice is the things happening around the fact that Dear Sanlang was a son in law. In the era when lineal genealogy principles prevailed, it was a great matter for the Zhuang Lineage to tidy up, who were facing the need to construct their identity. In doing so, they switched their viewpoint from passively rejecting that Dear Sanlang had been accepted to be the son in law of Dear Zhu without describing it to actively accepting the fact by establishing their stance that it was the unification of two different Lineages of the Zhus and the Zhuangs. It happened not only because of the d...

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