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한국의 사회변동과 운동리더십의 역사적 변환

Social Change and the Historical Transformation of Movement Leadership in South Korea

민주주의와 인권 v.17 no.1 , 2017년, pp.39 - 77  

This paper analyzes the historical transformation of movement leadership that led political processes in South Korean social change. In social movement, Leadership as micro foundations for strategies is the process of forces structurating inner order to be strategy oriented to achieve a movement’s goals. As a result, the changes in historical typologies of movement leadership revealed in strategic interaction of sociopolitical structure and collective action are distinguished into each periods. In 1960s, movement leadership transformed itself from ‘collective activism’ where social movements and leadership are yet separated into ‘oligarchic activism’ where movements are restrictively organized and an order between the masses and movement leading personnel formed. In Anti-Yushin Movement in the 1970s revealed the leadership of ‘organizational elitism’ thereby organizing and reproducing by stealthful under tyrannical political opportunity structure. In 1980s, movement leadership brought protest cycle of the June Democracy Movement was ‘strategic solidarism’ promoted the transition to democracy through collective protests. After 1990s, the micro foundations for movement strategies were ‘institutional professionalism.’ The leadership of institutional professionalism mobilizes and transforms professional knowledge into movement knowledge in an attempt to allow highly institutionalized civil movements to realize the politics of influence. However, crisis in the leadership of organizational civil movements soon followed in an ever more complex manner. South Korean social movements are now demanded to reflect on ‘micro-solidarity’ rediscovered in the 2000s Candlelight Rally in dealing with new challenges of civil politics and movement leadership.

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