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La fonction de prélèvement public sur les biens fonciers des institutions ecclésiastiques entre le IVe et le VIe siècle

The Function of Public Levy on the Landed Property of Ecclesiastical Institutions between the 4 th and 6 th Centuries

장신논단 v.49 no.3 , 2017년, pp.137 - 164   http://dx.doi.org/10.15757/kpjt.2017.49.3.006
남성현, Christian Raschle

In this study, we examined the semi-public characteristic of the religious economy in the Early Byzantine Empire. According to Jean Gascou, the heavy taxation of this period was not a sign of economic decline, but of the semi-public function of religious institutions like churches, monasteries and hospitals of the 6 th century in particular. Our principal theme focuses on describing the general policies of the religious economy of the Empire by the concept of ‘Imperial endowment accompanied with duties.’ We tried to show, first of all, that the oppressive fiscal duties for the Church of Ravenna resulted from the Imperial donations of the real estates to this church. The extraordinary taxation was not, in reality, the fiscal oppression, because the donationes of the real estates of the Imperial Court preceded the heavy tax, of which the characteristic can be defined as semi-public. Moreover, in the religious economic policy of inalienability (prohibitio alienandi) of the fifth-sixth centuries, we are to see a kind of Imperial endowment in the long term. At the same time, the Imperial Court of Constantinople did not forget to oblige duties to the religious establishments which were one of the major property owners: the munera and assistance to the poor. The religious institutions had to fill out duties, either expenses to public aim or property tax, as several laws and some documents showed it. Furthermore, the legacy and the heritage were destined more and more to piae causae and Justinian obliged the heirs and the bishops to execute them according to the intention of the testator. We could qualify this system as a classical re-distribution of taxes. In conclusion, the Early Byzantine Empire forced the ecclesiastical institutions to be semi-public by the policies of the religious economy which is ‘an endowment accompanied by duties.’

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