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논문 상세정보

한국사에서 중앙-지방 관계의 변화 추이

Trend of Center-Locality Relationship in Korean History

역사학연구 no.69 , 2018년, pp.59 - 97  
고석규
초록

The status of locality has changed as currently 'decentralization of power' based on 'local government' is actively under discussion in terms of constitutional reform. This paper is to come up with a solution for desirable central-local government relationship today by tracking trend of center-locality relationship in Korean history. The right answer for us was assumed to be found in historical and cultural experience we have been through. The catalysts for change in center-locality relationship might be found in intensity of centralization reflected in ‘Gunhyeon system’[郡縣制, the system of prefectures and counties], change in discretion/self-regulating competence or status of locality, exchange and cooperation between center and locality, mechanism of checks and critics, etc. The system of ‘Gunhyeon system’ is the oldest and longest local governing system in Korean history. While governance under ‘Gunhyeon system’ was limited to control over broad areas until the Unified Silla period, direct control under the centralized system was enhanced when ‘Juhyeon-sokhyeon system’[主縣屬縣制度, the system of control counties and subordinate counties] was established in Goryeo. However, ‘Juhyeon-sokhyeon system’ revealed its limit as resulted in multilayered governance with stratificational differentiation. Paradoxically, it implies that local self-governance was important. Different from Goryeo, Joseon could realize the universal, unitary local governance. In the mid-Joseon period, the nobility-driven ruling system based on compromise between government control and autonomy had been established, alongside with emergence of ‘Jaejisajok’[在地士族, intellectual class of noble birth remained in villages]. In the late Joseon period, central government's control over locality was enhanced again and rationalization and balanced development of the system had been realized. However, the system had revealed its limit as weighted to unilateral government administration since 19th century. It is noted that the new stage of figuring out the modern started during the period of transition to modern times, in terms of conflict of interest in civil autonomy, change in the amount/speed and qualitative change in accuracy of information by advanced transportation and communication, etc. Meanwhile, the locality had the relative autonomy when the central governance does not reach to them or obtained its own autonomy by themselves according to growth of local power. In other words, it seemed to evolve from 'non-intervention autonomy' to 'compromising autonomy' and finally 'collaborative autonomy'. At the national level, long-term sustenance and stability could be maintained upon smooth communication between center and locality, diversification of central hierarchy, and existence of critics against the central power. Therefore, the series of process that relative autonomy of locality and stability of dynasty maintained during the period that the local power was going to the central authority and the dynasty was replaced when social inconsistency was deepen as the local power's challenge to central authority was frustrated was repeated. Eventually, the key to determine the center-locality relationship can be found in how to supplement central bureaucracy, i.e., communication of personnel.

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