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조선 초기 실행 여성에 대한 도덕 권력의 처벌 - 조화(趙禾)의 처 이씨의 경우

Punishments on Behaviorally Deviant Women by Moral Powers in the Early Joseon Period - Focusing on the Case of Mrs. Lee as the Wife of Jo Hwa -

여성학연구 v.28 no.1 , 2018년, pp.87 - 111  

Mrs. Kim was the wife of Jo Hwa who was a cousin of Jo Joon as one of the contributors to the foundation of Joseon. She didn't hesitate to express her sexual desires. Sex scandals involving her continued, though not finally confirmed to be true. She also remarried Lee Ji from the royal family when she was 57. It was never wrong, but the noble rule system defined her remarriage as lewd. It is still uncertain that rumors over how Mrs. Kim fulfilled her sexual desires were really true. Some of the rumors might have been reasonable, but how much they were based on realities are not still unknown. However, there was one things that was never changed. It was the moral powers of noble men that judged women's sexual desires as just immoral. In dealing with Mrs. Kim who was the wife of Jo Hwa, therefore, the focus should be put on the powers of noble men who covered themselves under the name of morality. Armed with moral powers, noble men defined that it is all lewd whether women just hold, verbally express or realize sexual desires. By the way, being sexually 'lewd' is just a human trait that is defined within particular contexts. In other words, having or realizing sexual desires itself should not be characterized by lewdness. Mrs. Kim was just forcedly led by the moral powers of noble men to be defined as a lewd woman. Meanwhile, Mrs. Kim's deviating behaviors first began after she found her husband Jo Hwa had sex with her mother. Therefore, those behaviors might be attributed to that husband. Nevertheless, however, Jo Hwa was neither judged as lewd, nor punished. The adultery that he committed with his mother-in-law was just described as a trivial or ignorable episode. Punishments on Mrs. Kim had lots of effects on other people. Her son Jo Sim, Jo Yoo-rye and Jo Yoo-shin were prohibited from being in career as governmental officials. Even her son-in-law and the husband and son-in-law of her daughter's daughter were not exceptional. Jo Yoo-rye and Jo Yoo-shin defended their grandmother by using resonable words, but moral powers of the noble rule system did neither accept, nor even consider any of the words. Severe attacks by the powers on Mrs. Kim and her offsprings were probably widely known to people of the noble society, greatly contributing to suppressing noble women's sexual desires. Presumedly, noble women had to stop revealing verbally or give up meeting their sexual desires. For noble women, it was too asymmetrical since noble men could have multiple sexual relationships with lots of different women including kinyeo or entertaining women and female slaves. At last, the Joseon society was established in the way that noble men wanted. But in fact, it was disastrous to not only women, but also men.

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