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루터와 뮌처의 종말론 비교연구-정치사상의 관점에서

A Comparative Study of Luther and Müntzer's Theory of Eschatology-Focusing on a political thought

신학연구 v.55 no.2 , 2018년, pp.341 - 368   http://dx.doi.org/10.46334/TS.2018.12.73.341

This study attempts to characterize their eschatological thinking by analyzing the eschatological texts found in the writings of the Reformer Luther, a successful politician on the basis of secular authorities(obrigkeit), and of the Reformer Müntzer, who was labeled as a loser in the Reformation movement. Both have in common that they have applied eschatological viewpoints to historical events, but there are extreme differences and conflicts in their views on their social and political significance. This study discusses the Reformation of Luther and Müntzer from the point of view of eschatology, and clarifies the reason why the Reformation movement of both was forced to become uncompromising enemies in front of the political reality of revolution. Luther's political thought is faced with the criticism that Christians are urged to indulge in unjust social structures in the attitude of 'defeatist' and 'solemnist'. Luther chose oppression rather than revolution and also distinguished between personal morality and public morality as Christians. As demonstrated in the Peasant War, Luther emphasized the individual ethics of nonviolence and non-resistance to the violence of the oppressors, and gave the rulers of the secular authorities the public justification to use violent oppression to maintain the social order. Political thought based on the eschatology of Müntzer played a prophetic role in shaping the structure of modern revolutionary thought. It means that the eschatological revolution of the Christianity in the latter half of the Middle Ages gave birth to contemporary radical political thought and theology. Given the implicit expectation, the sectarian tendency, the social critique, and the disturbance between dystopia and utopia, today 's left­wing political thought can be expressed as a secularized apocalyptic movement as well as a modern prophetic movement. Modern revolutionary ideas can not be identified with the religious apocalyptic ideas of the first or the sixteenth century, but they are implicit if they are viewed only in terms of their capacity to accommodate their political, religious, and existential experiences in different situations it will be possible.

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