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论上市公司内部人交易的违信责任 - 以美国公司法判例为参照

Research on Fiduciary Liability of Insider Trading - Taking the US Corporate Case Law as a Reference -

중국법연구 v.37 , 2019년, pp.255 - 290   http://dx.doi.org/10.22415/clr.2019.37..010

The phenomenon that insiders of listed companies such as directors and senior executives use their privileges to engage in insider trading to gain private interests is widespread in China. Insider trading not only damages the interests of investors but also harms the interests of listed companies. Studying whether insider trading violates duties of loyalty to the listed company could help improve China's insider trading responsibility system. In the U.S. Corporate Case law, the legal precedents of the Delaware affirm that insider trading constitutes a violation of the duty of loyalty to the corporation. The insider must bear the responsibility for breach of fiduciary duty by disgorging illegal gains. This kind of fiduciary liability plays a supplementary role in preventing and deterring insider trading. This paper finds that insider trading hinders the fulfillment of insiders’ best obligations and creates many potential disadvantages for the company. Insider trading is a special conflict of interest and should be interpreted as one kind of violation of loyalty in order to reduce the company's agency costs. In terms of legal policy, China's insider trading civil liability system has many defects. Recognizing and implementing the fiduciary liability is conducive to deterring insider trading behaviors, and could indirectly compensate for the damages caused by insider trading to listed companies. On the basis of the comparative law, this paper proposes to imitate China's short swing trading rule and stipulates in the Securities Law that insiders who use their privileges to engage in insider trading violate the duties of loyalty and should disgorge all illegal gains to the listed companies.

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