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Word Order in Biblical Hebrew Poetry: A Reassessment of the Concept of Focus

Word Order in Biblical Hebrew Poetry: A Reassessment of the Concept of Focus

성경원문연구 no.44 , 2019년, pp.216 - 236   http://dx.doi.org/10.28977/jbtr.2019.4.44.216
David J. Fuller

It is no understatement that the issue of Biblical Hebrew word order in prophetic and poetic texts is a difficult and foreboding one. Although the last two decades have seen a number of monographs published on BH word order, the difficulty of surveying these works is greatly diminished by their common theoretical background. Lambrecht’s Information Structure and Sentence Form (1994) proved immensely influential on the following generations of Hebrew grammarians interested in word order, as its terminology and approach was the backbone of the studies of Heimerdinger (1999) and Shimasaki (2002). Other studies, such as those of Floor (2004), Moshavi (2010), and Holmstedt (2005) similarly utilize a broadly cognitive framework. The most pertinent study for poetics is Lunn’s Word-Order Variation in Biblical Hebrew Poetry (2006). For Lunn, a sentence can have its main focus on the predicate, the argument, or the whole sentence. To ascertain the focus of a sentence, Lunn differentiates asserted and presupposed knowledge, and asks whether or not the topic at hand has already been activated in the discourse. The chief difficulty with duplicating his analysis is that these decisions are, for him, made on intuitive rather than concrete linguistic grounds. Additionally, they require utilizing information from a discourse as a whole, rather than the order of components in the individual clause. It is the intention of this study to utilize the methodology of discourse analysis within the framework of functional grammar to develop a rigorous set of criteria for determining activated topics within a discourse. This framework will allow for a more reliable means of determining occurrences of marked and unmarked word order within Biblical Hebrew poetry.

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