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5.4운동 시기 존 듀이(John Dewey) 교육사상의 확산과 그 함의

The Diffusion of John Dewey's Educational Thought and Its Implications during the May Fourth Movement period

중국학보 no.88 , 2019년, pp.195 - 220   http://dx.doi.org/10.35982/jcs.88.10

The development of new educational thought during the May Fourth movement could be regarded as a branch of the nationalist flow of May Fourth movement in 1919. In terms of replacing traditional education system, this new educational campaign achieved some results. The Dewey School, through various organizations which encompasses traditional groups such as the Jiangsu Education Society, new educational institutions, such as Peking University, Southeast University and "New Education" magazine, focused on spreading and settle down of Dewey's educational thoughts and methods in China. As a result, a new school system was introduced in 1922 and various experimental teaching methods and textbooks were applied to the educational field. This could be seen as an accomplishment of intellectual group who invested cultural resources in the education sector by expanding their influence through the ideas of Dewey. However, the path of propagation of the Dewey theory depended on the human, organizational and regional connections between intellectuals, thus the attention of political and socio-economic meaning of the ideas were relatively weak and limited. Since the school system was insufficient, the application of Dewey thought had to concentrate on the diffusion of education and the supplement of vocational education. Although the renovation of traditional education which was the institutional goal of "Rebuilding the nation by education" campaign was achieved, it was not easy to obtain substantial achievement in the reality that the political situation and educational institutionalization were closely linked. Since democracy was not accepted as a system to operate political economy and the nationwide implementation of partisanship training after 1925 made it more difficult to maintain Dewey's liberal educational ideology and experimentation. However, the influence of Dewey's pragmatic approach on Chinese education still has an important implication that left room for various interpretations and practices on the application of democratic education to China.

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