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서울시(市) 대기오염(大氣汚染)이 시민보건(市民保健)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究

Epidemiological Study of Air Pollution and Its Effects on Health of Urban Population

Abstract

The urban population of our country is rapidly increasing due to many factors of social structure, and sociologists are predicting that the increase rate of the urban population will be over 50% in 1980's. Above all, the population of the capital city of Seoul, is at present more than four millions. Such centring of people in cities, together with the improvement of the standards of living, caused rapid increase in the amount of fuel consumption, and this consumption of fuels became one of the primary sources of the air pollution in cities. Moreover, the heavy traffic, construction of many tall buildings, and the increasing number of new factories due to the industrial development-all these are contributing to make the matter of air pollution worse and worse in the Metropolitan, whose geographical location is quite unfavorable considered from the view point of air pollution. Most homes in Seoul use briquet as fuel, while oils are used in tall buildings. The CO, $SO_2$, and smoke that come from burning of these fuels are a great threat to the health of the urban population. With the purpose of examining the influence of air pollution upon the public health, written inquiries were made upon respiratory diseases, and the carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood was measured to determine whether the air pollution may affect the health of the urban population. Method of Health Examination (1) Investigation of Respiratory Diseases Patients' records were examined to figure out the monthly ambulance rate of respiratory patients to the total number of patients treated. On the other hand, by using the questionnaire form approved by the Medical Research Council's Committee on Research into Chronic Bronchitis, investigators interviewed the examinees and inquired into the respiratory symptoms. (2) Measuring of Carboxyhemoglobin Saturation From the ear lobe of the examinees, with the use of the melangeur for the white blood cell counting, blood was taken, and after diluting it ten times with 0.1% $Na{2}CO_{3}$, again diulting it 20 times with 0.5% $Na_{2}\;CO_{3}$, its absorbancy was measured. The following results are obtained from the investigation. (1) It was found out that 7.7% of the total patients under treatment were suffering from upper respiratory infection, acute or chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. Of them all, patients with upper respiratory infection numbered the greatest with 4.8% and patients with acute or chronic bronchitis the next with 2.1%, and their monthly ambulance rate was high from December to February during the winter, and from April to May and from September to October during the changeable seasons. (2) The daily ambulance rate of respiratory patients, it was revealed, had a close connection with the concentration of $SO_2$ and CO in the air. (3) It was found out that men were more subject to respiratory disease than women, and both men and women were more liable to the diseases with the advancing of age. (4) People living at Choong-ku with the heavy traffic and in the industrial zones of Yeungdungpo had high frequency of respiratory symptoms. (5) Considered from the view point of occupations, high frequency was found among those without job, with jobs unknown, merchants and intdustrial workers, whose social status was rather low and traffic policemen who were always exposed to the exhaust gas of cars. As for women, the frequency was detected in the order of those from high to low, housewives who were exposed to briquet gas, women with jobs unknown, women without jobs, whose social status was low. (6) Ex-smokers rather than smokers, of both sexes, had higher frequency. As for men, heavy smokers had high frequency, while in women light smokers had rather high frequency which was presumed to be due to their average old age. (7) Men's average of carboxyhemoglobin saturation was 9.48%, while women's was 11.3%, higher than men's. (

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