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가공의치(架工義齒)에 작용(作用)하는 Stress에 관(關)한 광탄성학적(光彈性學的) 분석(分析

Photoelastic Stress Analysis of Fixed Partial Dentures

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate stresses in the various components of fixed partial dentures restoring the posterior teeth of the lower jaw, and to measure quantitatively the effects of certain modifications in structural design on the stresses in the restorations using two-dimensional photoelasticity. Two-dimensional photoelastic methods were used in this study. Several models of fixed partial dentures were constructed. Shoulder less margins and anatomic occlusal reduction were incorporated in Model 1. Rounded shoulders and flat occlusal reduction were incorporated in Model 2, while Model 3 was a cantilever fixed partial denture. Other similar fixed partial dentures were constructed with V and U notches deliverately included in the region of the fixed joints for comparative reasons. The birefringent materials used in this study were PSM-1 and PSM-5 in standard sheets. PSM-1 was used for constructing the substructure, and PSM-5 was used in making the components of the fixed partial dentures. The two materials were used in the construction of composite photoelastic models. Improved artificial stone was used to represent dental cement in luting the composite photoelastic models. Static loading procedures were used at preplanned sites to represent occlusal loads in the mouth. 35 mm color and B/W film were used to record isochromatics in accordance with photoelastic procedures. Data reduction was performed using the grid method, which helped in, the mathematical integration procedure (Shear difference method) to separate the principal stresses. The results were as follows. 1. Fixed partial dentures do not function in bending as a symmetrical beam. Alternate areas of tension and compression were demonstrated when multiple contact loading was used. 2. The weakest part in posterior fixed partial dentures is the fixed joint. 3. (1) Models I and modified Model I were loaded on the pontic using a 50 pound vertical static load. The shear stress near the posterior fixed joint in Model 1 (U notches) was+129.4 p.s.i., and at the same fixed joint in modified Model 1 (V notches) was+239.4 p.s.i. The concentration of stress in fixed joint was reduced by 50% when U notches replaced the V notches. (2) Modified Model 2 was loaded using a multiple contact loader at a total load of 125 pounds. The difference between the principal stresses (${\sigma}_1-{\sigma}_2$), shear stress, at the V notches was+600 p.s.i., and at the U notches was+3l7 p.s.i. The shear stress was reduced by 50% when U notches replaced the V notches. V-grooves at the fixed joints should be avoided, and should be replaced by regular shaped U-grooves. 4. Cantilever fixed partial dentures had much higher stresses at the fixed joint than fixed partial dentures that were attached at both ends.

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