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투습발수직물과 보온단열소재의 열 및 수분전달 특성

Thermal and Water Transmission Properties of Vapor Permeable Water Repellent Fabrics and Thermal Insulation Batting Materials


The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate thermal and water transmission properties of several vapor permeable water repellent (VPWR) fabrics and synthetic battings that became available in recent years. Five VPWR fabrics evaluated were Hipora in three coating variants, $Gore-Tex^{\circledR}$ and $Aitace^{\circledR}$. Battings evaluated were $Viwarma^{\circledR}$, $Uniwarmr^{\circledR}$, $Thinsulate^{\circledR}$, and $Airseal^{\circledR}$ Thermal resistance and water vapor transmission were measured for each fabric and batting and in all combinations. Thermal resistance at zero and 37 cm/sec air velocity was determined by the Thermo Labo II technique for simultaneously measuring conduction and radiation heat transfer. Water vapor transmission over 24 hours was measured by a modified weight-gain method in a compact humid chamber at conditions simulating the clothing climate under heavy exercise ($40{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, $90{\pm}2\%$ R.H., and 0.5 m/sec air velocity). Fabric porosity was calculated from fiber density and fabric weight, thickness, and area. Thermal resistance results for the fabrics showed the effectiveness of coatings in inhibiting heat transfer. Measurements taken in wind were: $31.1\~37.6\%$ for $Hipora^{\circledR}$ variants; $31.0\%$ for $Gore-Tex^{\circledR}$; and $18.4\%$ for $Aitaca^{\circledR}$ Measurements without wind were higher but in the same order. Water vapor transmission results were in reverse order: $Aitac^{\circledR}$, $8.8 kg/m^{2};\;Gore-Tex^{\circledR}$, 6.4 kg/$m^{2}$; and $Hipora^{\circledR},\;4.4\~6.0\;kg/m^{2}$. In general thermal resistance increased with porosity. For battings, the thermal resistance with wind results were: $Viwarmu^{\circledR}$, $65.0\%;\; Thinsulate^{\circledR}$, $62.0\%$; $Uniwarm^{\circledR}$, $61.0\%$; and $Airseala^{\circledR},\;53.1\%$. Thermal resistance was proportional to thickness. Thermal resistance of fabric-batting combinations were $20\%$ higher than those of the battings only. Water vapor transmission for combinations was mainly affected by that for the VPWR fabric used.

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