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중학교 "환경" 교과의 교수.학습 및 평가 방법 연구

A Study on Teaching-Learning and Evaluation Methods of Environmental Studies in the Middle School


This study was performed to determine appropriate teaching-learning and evaluation methods for Environmental Studies. To promote the relevance of our study to the needs of the schools and concerned educational communities of environmental education, we reviewed related literature, conducted questionnaire surveys, interviewed related teachers and administrator, held meetings with experts, and field-tested our findings. For selecting and developing teaching-learning methods of Environmental Studies, findings of educational research in general are considered. moreover, principles of environmental education, general aim of environmental education, orientations of environmental education, and developmental stages of middle school students in educational psychology were attended. In addition, relevance to the purpose of the Environmental Studies curriculum, appropriateness for value inquiry as well as knowledge inquiry, small group centered class organization, social interaction centered teaching-learning process, regional environmental situation, significance of personal environment, evaluation methods of Environmental Studies, multi- and inter-disciplinary contents of the Environmental Studies textbook, suitability to the evaluation methods of Environmental Studies, and emphasis on the social interaction in teaching-learning process were regarded. It was learned the Environmental Studies can be taught most effectively in via of holding discussion sessions, conducting actual investigation, doing experiment-practice, doing games and plate, role-playing and carrying out simulation activities, and doing inquiry. These teaching-learning methods were field-tested and proved appropriate methods for the subject. For selecting and developing evaluation method of Environmental Studies, such principles and characteristics of Environmental Studies as objective domains stated in the Environmental Studies curriculum, diversity of teaching-learning organization, were appreciated. We categorized nine evaluation methods: the teacher may conduct questionnaire surveys, testings, interviews, non-participatory observations; they may evaluate student's experiment-practice performances, reports preparation ability, ability to establish a research project, the teacher may ask the students to conduct a self-evaluation, or reciprocal evaluation. To maximize the effect of these methods, we further developed an application system. It considered three variables, that is, evaluates, evaluation objectives domains, and evaluation agent, and showed how to choose the most appropriate methods and, when necessary, how to combine uses of different methods depending on these variables. A sample evaluation instrument made on the basis of this application system was developed and tested in the classes. The system proved effective. Pilot applications of the teaching-learning methods and evaluation method were made simultaneously; and the results and their implications are as follows. Discussion program was applied in a lesson dealing with the problems of waste disposal, in which students showed active participation and creative thinking. The evaluation method used in this lesson was a multiple-choice written test for knowledge and skills. It was shown that this evaluation method and device are effective in helping students' revision of the lesson and in stimulating their creative interpretations and responces. Pupils showed great interests in the actual investigation program, and this programme was proved to be effective in enhancing students' participation. However, it was also turned out that there must be pre-arranged plans for the objects, contents and procedures of survey if this program is to effective. In this lesson, non-participatory observation methods were used with a focus on the attitudes of students. A scaled reported in general description rather than in grade. Experiment-practice programme was adopted in a lesson for purifying contaminated water and in th

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