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Xerostomia and xerophthalmia are delicate or serous side effects, occuring when the radiotherapy is administered to the head and neck cancer patient. It is known that the cause of the above side effect is radiosensitivity of serous cells. In this study, the ultrastructural features of the parotid glands of the X-irradiated rats were observed. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250g each were anesthetized with sodium thiopental, and placed on the Mitsubishi linear accelerator. Only the head and neck areas of animals were exposured at the distance of 80cm, within the area of $30X30cm$, in the depth of 1cm, with the speed of 200R/min. Total doses applied were 3,000R or 6,000R depending on the experimental groups. Animals were sacrificed on the 6th hour, 2nd day and 6th day after the irradiation. Parotid glands were fixed in the 2.5% glutaraldehyde-1.5% paraformaldehyde solution, and followed by refixation in the 1% osmium tetroxide solution. Dehydrated blocks were embedded in araldite mixture, and ultrathin sections were cut. Sections were contrasted with the solution of uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed with JEM 100 CX-II electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. Normal parotid acinar cells are two types; the light and the dark acinar cells. The light acinar cell contains dense secretory granules, whereas dark acinar cells contains granules of medium density with some darker spots within them, or other cells contain granules of medium density with darker rims. 2. Six hours after the irradiation, many acinar cells were degenerated showing variable stages of cytolytic bodies, light bodies, or dense degenerations. Within the acinar cell, Golgi apparatus and granular endoplasmic reticula were most severely altered elements. Granules showed more contrasting densities and irregularities. 3. Two days after the irradiation, some cytolytic bodies, and focal lucent degeneration of cytoplasm, and fine granular alteration of cytoplasmic matrix were pronounced. But other elements including secretory granules are rather looked unlatered. 4. Six days after the irradiation, most severe alterations were seen. Many intracellular canaliculi (or secretion figures), quanta of cytoplasm containing secretion antecedants, severely irregular luminal border, and again contrasting density of secretory granules showing tigroid spots or dense rims were noted. And myoepithelial degenerations were observed not uncommonly. 5. Irregular densities of secretory granules were interpreted as abnormal components of protein or carbohydrate portion are synthesized or abnormally metabolized under severe X-irradiation. 6. Myoepithelial degeneration and related alteration of nerve endings, etc., were suggested as the other causes of xerostomia following X-irradiation. 7. It is requested that radiation doses should be arranged, considering in mind not only the sensitivity of acinar cells but also the myoepithelial and neural functions.

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