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Effects of High Glucose on Na,K-ATPase and Na/glucose Cotransporter Activity in Primary Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

Abstract

Renal proximal tubular hypertrophy and hyperfunction are known to be early manifestations of experimental and human diabetes. As the hypertrophy and hyperfunction have been suggested to be central components in the progression to renal failure, an understanding of their underlying causes is potentially important for the development of therapy. A primary rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell culture system was utilized to evaluate the possibility that the renal proximal tubular hypertrophy and hyperfunction observed in vivo in diabetes mellitus, can be attributed to effects of elevated glucose levels on membrane transport systems. Primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubules, which achieved confluence at 10 days, exhibited brush-border characteristics typical of proximal tubular cells. Northern analysis indicated $2.2{\sim}2.3$ and 2.0 kb Na/glucose cotransporter RNA species appeared in fresh and cultured proximal tubule cells after confluence, repectively. The cultured cells showed reduced Na/glucose cotransporter activity compared to fresh proximal tubules. Primary cultured proximal tubule cells incubated in medium containing 20 mM glucose have reduced ${\alpha}-MG$ transport compared to cells grown in 5 mM glucose. In the proximal tubule cultures incubated in medium containing 5 mM or 20 mM glucose, phlorizin at 0.5 mM inhibited 0.5 mM ${\alpha}-MG$ uptake by 84.35% or 91.85%, respectively. The uptake of 0.5 mM ${\alpha}-MG$ was similarly inhibited by 0.1 mM ouabain (41.97% or 48.03% inhibition was observed, respectively). In addition, ${\alpha}-MG$ uptake was inhibited to a greater extent when $Na^{+}$ was omitted from the uptake buffer (81.86% or 86.73% inhibition was observed, respectively). In cell homogenates derived from the primary cells grown in 5 mM glucose medium, the specific activity of the Na/K-ATPase $(6.17{\pm}1.27\;{\mu}mole\;Pi/mg\;protein/hr)$ was 1.56 fold lower than the values in cell homogenates treated with 360 mg/dl D-glucose, 20 mM $(9.67{\pm}1.22\;{\mu}mole\;Pi/mg\;protein/hr)$. Total $Rb^{+}$ uptake occurred at a significantly higher rate (1.60 fold increase) in primary cultured rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell monolayers incubated in 20 mM glucose medium $(10.48{\pm}2.45\;nM/mg\;protein/min)$ as compared with parallel cultures in 5 mM glucose medium. $Rb^{+}$ uptake rate in 5 mM glucose medium was reduced by 28% when the cultures were incubated with 1 mM ouabain. The increase of the $Rb^{+}$ uptake by rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells in 20 mM glucose could be attributed primarily to an increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive $Rb^{+}$ uptake $(5\;mM\;to\;20\;mM;\;4.68{\pm}0.85\;to\;8.38{\pm}1.37\;nM/mg\;protein/min)$. In conclusion, the activity of the renal proximal tubular Na,K-ATPase is elevated in high glucose concentration. In contrast, the activity of the Nafglucose cotransport system is inhibited.

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