It is frequently pointed out that the Korean economy, with its scarce natural resources, would never have been able to achieve current levels of economic development without the massive provision of well-educated, hardworking human resources. Throughout the industrialization process ,full-fledged deployment and mobilization of qualified human resources have been the foundation to industrial policy and S&T policy. This paper describes the development of S&T human resources in Korea using various statistics including educational enrollment rates, unemployment rates, the allocation of researchers and R&D expenditures among sectors of performance, educational composition of employment within and across industries, technical human resource shortage rates, relative wage levels of SMEs, and composition of labor force by age-group and gender. While analyzing S&T human resources development, this paper discusses issues such as the mismatched demand and supply of skill and knowledge levels of the highly educated, the unbalanced distribution of S&T human resources between sectors, and the low utilization of the female and aged labor force. This paper suggests that the policy maker applies a hybrid of quantitative and qualitative policies to reduce the mismatches of supply and demand of skill and knowledge levels for each labor market categorized according to supply side.
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