Recombinant Pseudomonas lipase was used to study protein aggregation and adsorption upon in vitro refolding. Protein adsorption as well as aggregation was responsible for major side reactions upon in vitro refolding as a function of protein concentration. The optimal range of protein concentration was determined by the relative contribution of protein aggregation and adsorption. Above the optimal range, the yield of active lipase inversely correlated with protein aggregation, showing a competition between folding and aggregation. However, adsorption of protein rather than protein aggregation is thought to contribute as a major side reaction of the refolding process at sub-optimal concentrations at which the formation of aggregates should be more reduced. Protein aggregation was influenced by the amount of guanidine hydrochloride in the refolding solvent. The refolding temperature was a critical factor determining the extent of protein aggregation. The refolding yield was also affected by the dilution fold and dilution mode, which suggests that the refolding process might kinetically compete with the rate of mixing.
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