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Abstract

Water transport is mediated by two distinct pathways, diffusional and channel-mediated water transport. The first molecular water channel was identified from human erythrocytes in 1992. Genetically-related proteins from other mammalian tissues have subsequently been identified to transport water, and the group is referred to as th "Aquaporins". Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is most abundant in the brain, which may be involved in CSF reabsorption and osmoregulation. However, ontogeny and regulatory mechanisms of AQP4 channels have not been reported. Northern blot analysis showed that AQP4 mRNA began to be expressed in the brain just before birth and that its expression gradually increased by PN7 and then decreased at adult level. AQP4 was expressed predominantly in the ependymal cells of ventricles in newborn rats. And then its expression decreased in ependymal cells and increased gradually in other regions including supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. AQP4 is also expressed in the subfornical organ, in which the expression level is not changed after birth. Cryogenic brain injury did not affect expression of AQP4 mRNA, while ischemic brain injury decreased it. Osmotic water permeability of AQP4 channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes was inhibited by the pretreatment of BAPTA/AM and calmidazolium, a $Ca^{2+}/Calmodulin$ kinase inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the expression and the function of AQP4 channel are regulated by developmental processes and various pathophysiological conditions. These results will contribute to the understanding of fluid balance in the central nervous system and the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the body.

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