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$Mg^{2+}$ is the fourth most abundant cation in cellular organisms. Although the biological chemistry and the physiological roles of the magnesium ion were well known, the regulation of intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ in mammalian cells is not fully understood. More recently, however, the mechanism of $Mg^{2+}$ mobilization by hormonal stimulation has been investigated in hearts and in myocytes. In this work we have investigated the regulation mechanism responsible for the $Mg^{2+}$ mobilization induced by ${\alpha}1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation in perfused guinea pig hearts or isolated myocytes. The $Mg^{2+}$ content of the perfusate or the supernatant was measured by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. The elimination of $Mg^{2+}$ in the medium increased the force of contraction of right ventricular papillary muscles. Phenylephrine also enhanced the force of contraction in the presence of $Mg^{2+}$-free medium. ${\alpha}1-Agonists$ such as phenylephrine were found to induce $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in both perfused hearts or myocytes. This was blocked by prazosin, a ${\alpha}1-adrenoceptor$ antagonist. $Mg^{2+}$ efflux by phenylephrine was amplified by $Na^+$ channel blockers, an increase in extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ or a decrease in extracellular $Na^+$. By contrast, the $Mg^{2+}$ influx was induced by verapamil, nifedipine, ryanodine, lidocaine or tetrodotoxin in perfused hearts, but not in myocytes. $W_7$, a $Ca^{2+}/calmodulin$ antagonist, completely blocked the pheylephrine-, A23187-, veratridine-, $Ca^{2+}-induced$ $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in perfused hearts or isolated myocytes. In addition, $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was induced by $W_7$ in myocytes but not in perfused heart. In conclusion, An increase in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux by ${\alpha}1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation in hearts can be through $IP_3$ and $Ca^{2+}-calmodulin$ dependent mechanism.

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