Eucalyptus is a rich source of biologically active compounds. Among these, phloroglucinol compounds such as sideroxylonals, macrocarpals, euglobals, and robustadials are unique to Eucalyptus species. Sideroxylonal A is a very potent attachment-inhibitor. Macrocarpals show very strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. Macrocarpals also show HIV-RTase inhibitory activity. Euglobals are potent inhibitors of Epstein-Barr virus activation and are developed as skin and antitumor agents. They also show granulation inhibitory activity. In this review we aim to remove the existing confusion in literature on macrocarpals and discuss the biological activities and structure-activity relationships of phloroglucinol compounds.
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