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Abstract

Leaf movements in nyctinastic plants are produced by changes in the turgor of extensor and flexor cells, collectively called motor cells, in opposing regions of the leaf movement organ, the pulvinus. In Samanea saman, a tropical tree of the legume family, extensor cells shrink and flexor cells swell to bend the pulvinus and fold the leaf at night, whereas extensor cells swell and flexor cells shrink to straighten the pulvinus and extend the leaf in the daytime. These changes are caused by ion fluxes primarily of potassium and chloride, across the plasma membrane of the motor cells. These ion fluxes are regulated by exogenous light signals and an endogenous biolgical clock. Inward-directed K$^+$ channels are closed in extensor and open in flexor cells in the dark period, while these channels are open in extensor and closed in flexor cells in the light period. Blue light opens the closed K$^+$ channels in extensor and closes the open them in flexor cells during darkness. Illumination of red light followed by darkness induces to open the closed K$^+$ channels in flexor and to close the open K$^+$ channels in extensor cells in the light. The dynamics of K$^+$ channels in motor cells that are controlled by light signals are consistent with the behavior of the pulvini in intact plants. Therefore, these cell types are an attractive model system to elucidate regulations of ion transports and their signal transduction pathways in plants. This review is focused on light-controlled ion movements and regulatory mechanisms involved in phosphoinositide signaling in leaf movements in nyctinastic plants.

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