Ecological characteristics of Rumex acetosella have been studied both in the laboratory and in the field. R. acetosella grows well straight up after germination, elongating and thickening their rhizomes with sprouts erupting along their bodies of the rhizome. The number and development of leaves and ramets reach their peak by April. The size of leaves and the cover degree of the plant increase from April to May. R. acetosella is an ephemeral, a short life mode plant, finishing its life cycle in July or August. The germination and seedling growth of selected species exposed to aqueous extracts of R. acetosella were in inverse proportion to concentration. The growth of Rumex japonicus and Digitaria sanguinalis cultivated in soil with R. acetosella was more inhibited than that of the control. Twelve chemical compounds were identified from R. acetosella by GC and HPLC and verified by bioassay with the same chemical reagents. It would be assdumed that these chemical substances are responsible for the allelopathic effect of R. acetosella. In short, R. acetosella plants grow vigorously from April and maintain their superior competitive ability to other plants in forming their communities by emitting chemical substances into their environment.