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식중독 발생의 사례 통해 본 집단급식의 문제접 분석

Analysis of Problems of Food Service Establishments Contributing to Food Poisoning Outbreaks Discovered through the Epidemiological Studies of Some Outbreaks

Abstract

The main problems contributing to food poisoning outbreaks in institutional settings and a home were reviewed and analyzed through the epidemiological investigations of food poisoning. The major documented factors included improper holding temperatures, inadequate cooking, poor personal hygiene, cross-contamination and contaminated equipment, food from unsafe sources, failure to follow food hygiene policies, and lack of education, training, monitoring and superivision. Usually more than one factor contributed to the development of an outbreak. (1) Use of improper holding temperatures was the single most important factor contributing to food poisoning. They included improper cooling, allowing a laps of time (12 hours or more) between preparing food and eating it, improper hot holding, and inadequate or improper thawing. Food thermometers were not used in most of the instances. (2) In inadequate cooking, the core temperature of food during and after cooking had not been measured, and routine monitoring was limited to recording the temperature of plated meals. Compared with conventional methods of cooking, microwave ovens did not protect against food poisoning as effectively. Centralized food preparation potentially increased the risk of food poisoning outbreaks. (3) Poor personal hygiene both at the individual level (improper handwashing and lack of proper hygienic practices) and at the institutional level (poor general sanitization) increased the risk of transmission. Person to person transmission of enteric pathogens through direct contact and via fomites has been noted in several instances. (4) Obtaining food from unsafe sources was a risk factor in outbreaks of food poisoning. Food risks were high when food was grown or harvested from contaminated areas. Possibilities included contamination in the field, in transport, at the retail site, or at the time it was prepared for serving. (5) Cross-contamination and inadequate cleaning/handling of equipment became potential vehicles of food poisoning. Failure to separate cooked food from raw food was also a risk factor. (6) Failure to follow food hygiene policies also provided opportunities for outbreaks of food poisoning. It included improper hygienic practices during food preparation, neglect of personnel policies (involvement of symptomatic workers in food preparation), poor results on routine inspections, and disregarding the results and recommendations of an inspection. (7) Lack of formal and in-service education, training, monitoring, and supervision of food handlers or supervisors were critical and perhaps neglected elements in occurrences of food poisoning.

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  1. 2002. "Effects of Vinegar and Lactic Acid on the Survival of Pathogens Causing Food Poisoning of Sliced Raw Fish Meat" 생명과학회지 = Journal of life science, 12(6): 669~675 
  2. Park, You-Hwa ; Lee, Yeon-Kyung 2007. "Analysis of Sanitation Management Practices through Field Assessment of Large Restaurants by Restaurant Style in Daegu and Gyeongbuk Province" 한국식품영양과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 36(7): 944~954 
  3. Kwon, Sang-Chul 2012. "Critical Limit Establishment of Sterilization Process for HACCP System of Liquefied Coffee and Sikhe" 한국산학기술학회논문지 = Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 13(11): 5247~5253 
  4. Kwon, Sang-Chul 2012. "A Study on Microbiological Critical Limit in Sterilization processing of Fried Kimchi Soup" 한국산학기술학회논문지 = Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 13(9): 4018~4024 

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