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서울과 경기 일부지역의 소득수준별 미취학 아동의 식생활 태도 및 영양상태에 관한 비교 연구: 2. 영양소 및 지방산 섭취실태를 중심으로

A Comparative Study on the Dietary Attitudes and Nutritional Status of Preschoolers in Different Income Levels in Seoul and Kyunggi-Do: 2. Focusing on Preschoolers' Nutrients and Fatty Acid Intakes

Abstract

According to economical status, under-nutrition and over-nutrition coexist in preschool children in Korea. Subjects consumed more than RDA in most nutrients, and children in of the upper income class tended to have more nutrients than those of the low income class. Especially in case of energy, protein, fat, vitamin $B_2$, and P there were significant differences among the different classes. The mean calorie compositions of carbohydrates, protein and fat were $57{\sim}59:\;16{\sim}17:\;26{\sim}27$ and fat calorie percentage was higher than quantity recommended for Korean adults. Energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, $B_1$ and C intakes were taken mostly from plant food sources. In the upper income class group, intakes of protein and vitamin $B_2$ from animal food sources were higher than in any other income classes. Intakes of iron, vitamin A, $B_1$ and C were largely provided by plant food group. Especially 44-45% of vitamin A were taken from vegetable and fruits group, which indicated that about 50% of vitamin A intake was the form of ${\beta}-carotene$. Also compared with other groups, in the upper income class group, the intakes of energy, protein, Ca, p, vitamin $B_1$ and vitamin $B_2$ from cereal and potatoes were significantly lower, and those of Ca and P from milks and meats, fishes & eggs were significantly higher(p<0.05). The mean fat intake in all subjects was $38{\sim}43g/day$. Regardless of income class, oleic acid($6.6{\sim}8.4g$) and linoleic acid($6.7{\sim}8.1g$) were the most abundant fatty acids contained in the diet. The upper class group consumed significantly more total saturated fatty acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids(p<0.05). In polyunsaturated fatty acids, there were no differences between 3 different income classes, but intakes of total ${\omega}6$ fatty acids in the upper class tended to be higher and those of total o3 fatty acids in low class tended to be higher. Therefore, ${\omega}6/{\omega}3$ tended to be higher in the upper class group. Regardless of income classes, P/M/S and ${\omega}6/{\omega}3$ ratios in all subjects were $0.9{\sim}l.3/1.0{\sim}1.1/1.0$ and $5.2{\sim}7.4/1.0$, respectively and were in a desirable range. Cholesterol intake of subject was 184-218 mg/day, which was comparable to the value of Korean adult intake.

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