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Abstract

The objective of this research was to characterize effects of Cu or Cd additions on chemistry of soil quality indices, such as pH, EC, cation distribution and buffering capacity. Metals were added at rates ranging from 0 to 400 mg $kg^{-1}$ of soil. Soil solution was sequentially extracted from saturated pastes using vacuum. Concentrations of Cu or Cd remaining in soil solutions were very low as compared to those added to the soils, warranting that most of the added metals were recovered as nonavailable fractions. Adsorption of the added metals released cations into soil solution causing increases of ionic strength of soil solution. At metal additions of $200{\sim}400\;mg\;kg^{-1}$, EC of soil solution increased to as much as $2{\sim}4\;m^{-1}$; salinity levels considered high enough to cause detrimental effects on plant production. More divalent cations than monovalent cations were exchanged by Cu or Cd adsorption. The nutrient buffering capacity of soils was decreased due to the metal adsorption and release of cations. pH of soil solution decreased linearly with increasing metal loading rates, with a decrement of up to 1.3 units at 400 mg Cu $kg^{-1}$ addition. Influences of Cu on each of these soil quality parameters were consistently greater than those of Cd. These effects were of a detrimental nature and large enough in most cases to significantly impact soil productivity. It is clear that new protocols are needed for evaluating potential effects of heavy metal loading of soils.

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