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장기간에 걸친 DHA 보충이 영아의 신체발육 및 두뇌발달에 미치는 영향

Long-Term Effects of the DHA Supplementation on Physical and Brain Development in Full-Term Infants

초록

본 연구에서는 정상으로 출생한 영아를 대상으로 DHA가 첨가된 분유 및 이유식을 섭취시켰을 때 영아의 신체발육 및 두뇌 발달에 미치는 영향을 조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1) 영아의 체중, 신장, 체위 , 두위 등 신체 발육은 소 아발육 기준치의 50th percentile에 해당하였으며. 모두 정상범위에 속하였다. 2) 혈중 총 지방질 농도는 470.4~542.9mg/dl,중성 지방은 107.0c-128.8mg/dl,총콜레스테롤 147.6-169.Omg/dl, LDL-콜레스테롤은 74.7~104.9mg/dl로 모 두 정상범위에서 군간의 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 3) 영아의 혈중 지방산 수준을 살펴본 결과 식이 섭취 에 따른 군간의 DHA수준의 차이가 있었다. 적혈구내의 D DHA는 Breast十DHA(+) 군에서 5.26%. DHA(+ 군에서 4.20%, Breast +DHA( -) 군에서 3.98%. 그리고 DHA(-) 군에서 2.85%로 섭취에 따라유의적인 차이를 보였다. AA는 7.1O~8.93의 수준으로 군간의 차이는 없었으며. 총 n-3계 지방산은 5.82~7.75%. 총 n-6계 지방산은 27.62~30.29%의 수준으로 역시 군간에 차이가 없었다. 4) 영아의 두뇌 발달 생태를 flash VEP 검사를 통하여 실시한 결과 모든 군간의 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 전기자극에 대해 가장 빨리 반응하는 시간을 나타내는 잠복기 $N_1$ 와 경우, 오른쪽 눈이 82.8~89.8ms, 왼쪽 눈이 84.8~94.4ms의 수준을 나타냈으며, 자극에 반응하는 증폭 $N_1-P_2$의 경우는 오른쪽 눈은 $-11.5~-18.3\mu\textrm{V}$, 왼쪽눈은 $-11.2~-19.1\mu\textrm{V}$, 의 수준을 나타냈다. 5) 생후 48주에 영아와 지능발달과 행동발달을 살펴 본 결과 지능 발달지수는 90.3~96.3로 정상수치라고 할 수 있는 $100\pm16$ 범위에 속하였다. 행동발달지수의 경우에도 93.9~101 수준으로 지능발달지수와 마찬가지로 정상범위에 속하였고 군간의 유의적인 차이를 관찰할 수 없었다.

Abstract

Recent research indicates that the n-3 fatty acid , docosahexaenoic acid(22 : 6n 3, DHA) plays an essential role in infant brain development . DHA is highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissues and accumulates during late fetal and early neonatal life. Diets deficient in DHA are associated with reduced levels of DHA in brain and retinal tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the long term effects of DHA supplementation on the growth and mental development of full-term infants. THirty four healty infants were recruited from those who were delivered at Kyung Hee Medical Center. The experimental groups were the breast milk+DHA(-) group who were fed human milk for 20 weeks after birth and thereafter were fed placebo formula for 28 weeks, the breast milk+DHA(+) group who were fed human milk for 20 weeks after birth and thereafter were fed DHA supplemented formula for 28 weeks, DHA(-) group who were fed placebo formula for 48 weeks, and DHA(+) group who were fed DHA supplemented formula for 48 weeks. The daily average intake of DHA for the breast milk+DHA(-) , breast milk+DHA(+), DHA(-) and DHA(+) groups were 39.1mg, 89.9mg, 17.7mg, and 160.224mg, respectively. The results showed that measurements of infant weight, length, head, and chest circumferncewere all in normal range and they were not influenced by the DHA supplements in their diets. There was a significant correlation between dietary DHA intake and erythrocyte DHA level. The results of flash visual evoke potential (VEP) test were not correlated with eerythrocyte DHA and dietary DHA levels at 48 weeks of age. No differences were found in Bayley mental and Psychomotor Development lndex scores among the four experimental groups at 48 weeks of age. Unlike the short-term effects there was no long-term effect of relatively small amounts of dietary DHA supplements on the scores for flash VEP and Bayley test, even thour호 there was an elevated DHA supplements on the scores for flash VEP and Bayley test, even through there was an elevated DHA content in the infants erythrocytes.

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