The reform movements of current mathematics education have based on several major ideas, in order to provide a new vision of the teaching and loaming of mathematics. Of the ideas, the motto of communication of mathematics appears to be a significant factor to change teaching practices in mathematics classroom. Through Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, the psychological background is presented for both supporting the motto and extracting important suggestions of the reform of mathematics education. The development of higher mental functions is explained by internalization, semiotic mediation, and the zone of proximal development. Above all, emphasis is put on the concepts of scaffolding and inter subjectivity related to the zone of proximal development. Seven implications are proposed by Vygotsky's sociocultural theory for the new forms of the teaching and learning of mathematics.
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