The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fabrication and tightening methods of gold cyliner on the preload of the standard abutment. Three linear strain gauges (KFR-02N-120-C1-23, Kyowa, Japan) were mounted longitudinally on the 5.5mm Standard abutment (Nobel Biocare, Sweden) and three kinds of gold cylinders such as, as-received gold cylinder, gold cylinder after casting, and plastic cylinder after casting with type IV gold alloy were connected over the top of the standard abutment. Two kinds of tightening methods, such as manual torque with handhold screwdriver and electronic torque using Electronic torque controller were used to generate preload on the abutment. The result were as follows; 1. The preload generated by tightening cast plastic cylinder with handhold screw driver, was the lowest among the six groups. 2. The preload generated by cast plastic cylinder was lower than those by gold cylinders regardless of the tightening methods. 3. The electronic torque controller produced higher torque values than the handheld screwdriver.
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