The purpose of this study was to compare the screw loosening characteristics of three avail-able cementation type abutments: one-piece cementation type abutment; two-piece cementation type abutment using titanium abutment screw; two-piece cementation type abutment using gold abutment screw. Two implant supported three-unit superstructures were fabricated using a pair of 3 kinds of abutments for each experimental model. Cyclic loading was applied on the specimen, and made to stop when the superstructure showed movement over threshold range. The loaded cycle was counted until the machine stopped. Frequency analysis was done to measure the change of natural frequency before and after the application of cyclic load and to find the effect of screw loosening on the change of natural frequency. The specimen assembly was modeled to perform the finite element analysis to see the distribution of the stress induced by the application of preload over the screw joint and to compare the pattern of the distribution of stress induced by the external force with the change of the preload condition. The following results were obtained: 1. The failure loading cycle of two-piece cementation type abutment using gold screw was significantly greater than those of the other groups. 2. One-piece cementation type abutment applied to multi-unit restoration case did not show greater resistance to screw loosening compared to two-piece cementation type abutments. 3. Frequency analysis showed decrease in natural frequency when screw loosening occured.
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