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THE EFFECT OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP) ON BONE FORMATION AROUND DENTAL IMPLANT IN THE RABBIT: A HISTOMOR-PHOMETRIC AND REMOVAL TORQUE STUDY

Abstract

Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) has been known to increase the rate and degree of bone formation by virtue of growth factors in concentrated platelets. Although its great healing effect on bone defect or pre-implantation site preparation in conjunction with bone substitute has been reported, the effect associated with implant is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PRP on rapid osseointegration of endosseous dental implants in the rabbit tibiae. Twenty two adult female New Zealand white rabbits, weighing approximately 2.7-3.3kg, were used for this study. Twelve of the 22 animals were used for histomorphometric analysis and ten of the 22 were for removal torque test. Each animal received two implants in each tibia (two treated with PRP and two as control) and was given fluorochrome intramuscularly. For histomorphometric analysis, rabbits were divided into four groups according to the healing period. At 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks postoperatively, each three animals were sacrificed serially and the amount and rate of bone formation around dental implant were examined on the undecalcified sections under fluorescent microscope, polarized microscope and light microscope connected to a personal computer equipped with image analysis system. For removal torque test, rabbits were divided into two groups and removal torque tests were performed at 4 weeks, 10 weeks after implant placement. In total, 88 screw shaped, commercially pure titanium implants (Neoplant, Neobiotech, Seoul, Korea) were used in this study. Labeling pattern reflected differences of two groups in bone formation rate at each period. Histomorphometrically, PRP group showed significantly higher bone volume within threads compared to control group at 2 weeks ($70.30{\pm}4.96%$ vs. $50.68{\pm}6.33%$; P < .01) and 4 weeks ($82.59{\pm}5.94%$ vs. $72.94{\pm}4.57%$; P < .05 ). PRP group at 1, 2 and 4 weeks revealed similar degree of bone volume formation comparable to control group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. On the other hand, while PRP group showed higher bone-implant contact ($47.37{\pm}8.09%$) than control group ($33.16{\pm}13.47%$) at 2 weeks, there were no significant differences between PRP group and control group for any experimental period. Removal torque values also showed no significant differences between PRP group and control group at any experimental period (P > .05). These findings imply that PRP could induce rapid, more bone formation around implant during early healing period and get faster secondary stability for reducing healing period, though it has not induced bone maturation enough to resist functional loading.

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