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Abstract

The aims of this experiment were to investigate the strain and temperature changes simultaneously within autopolymerzing acrylic resin specimens. A computerized data acquisition system with an electrical resistance strain gauge and a thermocouple was used over time periods up to 180 minutes. The overall strain kinetics, the effects of stress relaxation and additional heat supply during the polymerization were evaluated. Stone mold replicas with an inner butt-joint rectangular cavity ($40.0{\times}25.0mm$, 5.0mm in depth) were duplicated from a brass master mold. A strain gauge (AE-11-S50N-120-EC, CAS Inc., Korea) and a thermocouple were installed within the cavity, which had been connected to a personal computer and a precision signal conditioning amplifier (DA1600 Dynamic Strain Amplifier, CAS Inc., Korea) so that real-time recordings of both polymerization-induced strain and temperature changes were performed. After each of fresh resin mixture was poured into the mold replica, data recording was done up to 180 minutes with three-second interval. Each of two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (Duralay, Vertex) and a vinyl ethyl methacrylate product (Snap) was examined repeatedly ten times. Additionally, removal procedures were done after 15, 30 and 60 minutes from the start of mixing to evaluate the effect of stress relaxation after deflasking. Six specimens for each of nine conditions were examined. After removal from the mold, the specimen continued bench-curing up to 180 minutes. Using a waterbath (Hanau Junior Curing Unit, Model No.76-0, Teledyne Hanau, New York, U.S.A.) with its temperature control maintained at $50^{\circ}C$, heat-soaking procedures with two different durations (15 and 45 minutes) were done to evaluate the effect of additional heat supply on the strain and temperature changes within the specimen during the polymerization. Five specimens for each of six conditions were examined. Within the parameters of this study the following results were drawn: 1. The mean shrinkage strains reached $-3095{\mu}{\epsilon},\;-1796{\mu}{\epsilon}$ and $-2959{\mu}{\epsilon}$ for Duralay, Snap and Vertex, respectively. The mean maximum temperature rise reached $56.7^{\circ}C,\;41.3^{\circ}C$ and $56.1^{\circ}C$ for Duralay, Snap, and Vertex, respectively. A vinyl ethyl methacrylate product (Snap) showed significantly less polymerization shrinkage strain (p<0.01) and significantly lower maximum temperature rise (p<0.01) than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (Duralay, Vertex). 2. Mean maximum shrinkage rate for each resin was calculated to $-31.8{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec,\;-15.9{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec$ and $-31.8{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec$ for Duralay, Snap and Vertex, respectively. Snap showed significantly lower maximum shrinkage rate than Duralay and Vertex (p<0.01). 3. From the second experiment, some expansion was observed immediately after removal of specimen from the mold, and the amount of expansion increased as the removal time was delayed. For each removal time, Snap showed significantly less strain changes than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (p<0.05). 4. During the external heat supply for the resins, higher maximum temperature rises were found. Meanwhile, the maximum shrinkage rates were not different from those of room temperature polymerizations. 5. From the third experiment, the external heat supply for the resins during polymerization could temporarily decrease or even reverse shrinkage strains of each material. But, shrinkage re-occurred in the linear nature after completion of heat supply. 6. Linear thermal expansion coefficients obtained from the end of heat supply continuing for an additional 5 minutes, showed that Snap exhibited significantly lower values than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (p<0.01). Moreover, little difference was found between the mean linear thermal expansion coeff

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