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고려인삼의 주요 효능과 그 임상적 응용

Clinical Applications and Efficacy of Korean Ginseng

초록

본 총설은 1980년대부터 최근까지 국내외 학술잡지나 심포지움 등에 발표된 인삼의 주요 임상효능 연구결과를 요약 고찰하고, 그 임상 적응증과 안전성 등에 대한 검토를 통해 금후 인삼의 임상적 활용성 제고와 인삼의 진정한 약용가치 평가를 위한 임상연구의 발전에 도움을 주고자 하였다. 당뇨병을 비롯한 동맥경화성 질환, 고혈압, 악성질환, 성기능 장애 등의 만성질환에 대한 그 동안의 연구결과는 인삼의 치료효과보다는 예방 및 회복제로서의 효용성을 보여 주었다. 특히 이들 질환의 각종 자각적 장해증상과 장기 약물치료의 부작용으로 인한 QOL의 악화에 에 대한 개선효과가 관찰되었다. 그러나 인삼의 효과는 일반적으로 mild 하여 일차적 치료보다는 관행적 약물요법과 병용할 때 보조요법제로서 또는 부작용을 보다 적게 하는 효과가 기대된다. 또한 주요 강장효능과 관련하여 작업수행능력에 미치는 임상연구 결과는 인삼복용이 각종 스트레스 상태하의 신체적 조건에 대한 적응능력을 개선시켜 육체적 정신적 기능저하를 회복시키는 효과를 보였다. 이러한 임상시험에서 얻어진 결과가 그대로 인삼의 적응증(indication)이라고 단정할 수는 없으며, 그 효능의 과학적 증거들에 대해서는 아직도 논란이 많고, 임상실험의 유효성 평가와 관련된 방법론적 문제점도 많이 지적되고 있다. 보다 확실한 적응증 제시를 위해서는 표준화된 인삼시료를 이용하여 보다 체계적인 시험설계에 의한 객관적 효능평가가 필요하다. 한편 인삼(제품)복용에 의한 부작용(adverse effects)의 발생 가능성에 대한 사례보고들도 대부분 인삼의 과량복용이나 품질관리 미흡에서 기인되는 것으로 여겨지고 있다. 최근 해외 시장에서 유통되는 인삼제품 품질검사에서 사포닌 성분의 불검출 또는 함량 미달과 유해성분의 오염가능성 등 부정적 견해들이 다수 보고되었다. 그러나 표준화된 인삼제품의 추천 복용량을 사용한 대부분의 임상실험에서는 거의 유의할만한 부작용은 인정되지 않았다. 금후 연구와 관련하여, 품질표준의 지표성분으로 간주되는 진세노사이드의 절대함량과 그 성분조성 차이에 따른 임상효과의 차별성이 있는지에 대한 검토와, 특히 최근 실험적으로 밝혀지고 있는 사포닌 성분의 장내 세균에 의한 생물전환체의 인체 실험을 통한 효과 검정이 필요하다. 나아가서는 적정 복용량의 설정과 이와 관련되는 생체내 동태 및 생체이용율(bioavilability)에 관한 정보가 거의 없으므로 이것도 금후 검토해야 할 과제로 사료된다. 인삼은 전통약물로서 오랜 역사성과 그동안의 연구결과에 의한 과학성을 가지고 있으므로 건강유지와 병의 예방 및 회복촉진을 위한 보조요법제 또는 기능성 식품으로써의 유용성이 있는 것으로 판단된다. 앞으로 인삼의 활용성 증대를 위해서는 보다 과학적인 임상평가에 의한 안전성 및 유효성 입증과 제품의 엄격한 품질관리의 필요성이 더욱 강조되어야 할 것이다.

Abstract

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) received a great deal of attention from the Orient and West as a tonic agent, health food and/or alternative herbal therapeutic agent. However, controversy with respect to scientific evidence on pharmacological effects especially, evaluation of clinical efficacy and the methodological approach still remains to be solved. Author reviewed those articles published since 1980 when pharmacodynamic studies on ginseng have intensively started. Special concern was paid on metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, circulatory disorders, malignant tumor, sexual dysfunction, and physical and mental performance to give clear information to those who are interested in pharmacological study of ginseng and to promote its clinical use. With respect to chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, malignant disorders, and sexual disorders, it seems that ginseng plays preventive and restorative role rather than therapeutics. Particularly, ginseng plays a significant role in ameliorating subjective symptoms and preventing quality of life from deteriorating by long term exposure of chemical therapeutic agents. Also it seems that the potency of ginseng is mild, therefore it could be more effective when used concomitantly with conventional therapy. Clinical studies on the tonic effect of ginseng on work performance demonstrated that physical and mental dysfunction induced by various stresses are improved by increasing adaptability of physical condition. However, the results obtained from clinical studies cannot be mentioned in the indication, which are variable upon the scientist who performed those studies. In this respect, standardized ginseng product and providing planning of the systematic clinical research in double-blind randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the real efficacy for proposing ginseng indication. Pharmacological mode of action of ginseng has not yet been fully elucidated. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic researches reveal that the role of ginseng not seem to be confined to a given single organ. It has been known that ginseng plays a beneficial role in such general organs as central nervous, endocrine, metabolic, immune systems, which means ginseng improves general physical and mental conditons. Such multivalent effect of ginseng can be attributed to the main active component of ginseng,ginsenosides or non-saponin compounds which are also recently suggested to be another active ingredients. As is generally the similar case with other herbal medicines, effects of ginseng cannot be attributed as a given single compound or group of components. Diversified ingredients play synergistic or antagonistic role each other and act in harmonized manner. A few cases of adverse effect in clinical uses are reported, however, it is not observed when standardized ginseng products are used and recommended dose was administered. Unfavorable interaction with other drugs has also been suggested, which the information on the products and administered dosage are not available. However, efficacy, safety, interaction or contraindication with other medicines has to be more intensively investigated in order to promote clinical application of ginseng. For example, daily recommended doses per day are not agreement as 1-2g in the West and 3-6 g in the Orient. Duration of administration also seems variable according to the purpose. Two to three months are generally recommended to feel the benefit but time- and dose-dependent effects of ginseng still need to be solved from now on. Furthermore, the effect of ginsenosides transformed by the intestinal microflora, and differential effect associated with ginsenosides content and its composition also should be clinically evaluated in the future. In conclusion, the more wide-spread use of ginseng as a herbal medicine or nutraceutical supplement warrants the more rigorous investigations to assess its effacy and safety. I

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