This article analyzes mathematics education from dialectical materialism acknowledging the objectivity of knowledge. The thesis that knowledge is objective advances to the recognition that knowledge will be internalized, and an idea of zone of proximal development(ZPD) is established as a practice program of internalization. The lower side of ZPD, i.e. the early stage of internalization takes imitation in a large portion. And in the process of internalization the mediational means play an important role. Hereupon the role of mathematics teacher, the object of imitation, stands out significantly. In this article, treating the contents of study as follows, I make manifest that teaching and learning in mathematics classroom are united dialectically: I hope to findout the method of teaching-learning to mathematical knowledge from the point of view that mathematical knowledge is objective; I look into how analysis into units, as the analytical method of Vygotsky, has been developed from the side of mathematical teaching-learning; I discuss the significance of mediational means to play a key role in attaining the internalization in connection with ZPD and re-illuminate imitation. Based on them, I propose how the role of mathematics teachers, and the principle of organization to mathematics textbook should be.
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