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초록

포유동물의 콩팥에서 오줌 농축기전에 중요한 요소(urea)의 이동에 관여하는 요소운반체 (urea transporter, UT)에는 요세관에서 발현되는 요소운반체인 UT-A와 적혈구에서 발현되는 요소운반체인 UT-B가 있다. 최근 UT-A에는 UT-A1, UT-A2, UT-A3, UT-A4, UT-A5 등 5종류가 있음이 밝혀졌다. 이 연구에서는 콩팥내 요세관 세포에서 UT-A1, UT-A2 및 UT-A4를 표지하는 것으로 알려진 UT-A (L403)의 분포를 밝히고자 하였다. Sprague-Dawley계 흰쥐($200{\sim}250g$)의 콩팥을 대상으로 정상군, 탈수군(식수를 3일간 공급하지 않은 군) 및 수분과잉공급군(3%의 sucrose를 섞은 식수를 3일간 자유롭게 먹였다)의 3군으로 나누었다. 콩팥은 복대동맥을 통하여 2% paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate (PLP) 또는 8% paraformaldehyde용액으로 10분간 관류 고정하였다. 콩팥조직절편은 UT-A에 대한 토끼 다클론항체를 이용하여 포매전면역염색법을 이용한 과산화효소법과 면역도금법을 시행한 후 광학 및 전자현미경으로 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 흰쥐 콩팥에서 UT-A1은 속수질집합관의 세포질에 산재하여 분포하고 있었으며, UT-A2는 짧은-헨레고리의 내림가는부분 말단 1/2 부분의 상피세포(I형 세포)와 속수질 초기부분에 있는 긴-헨레고리의 내림가는부분 상피세포(II형 세포)의 세포막에 분포하고 있었다. 속수질집합관내 UT-A1은 탈수군에서는 감소하였으며, 수분과잉공급군에서는 증가하였다. 짧은-헨레고리의 내림가는부분에 있는 UT-A2는 탈수군과 수분과잉공급군 모두에서 증가하되 수분과잉공급군에서 더 증가하였다. 긴-헨레고리의 내림가는부분 중 속수질 초기부분에서 발현되는 UT-A2의 면역반응성은 탈수군에서 현저히 증가하였으나, 수분과잉공급군에서는 정상군에서처럼 약하게 발현되었다. 이상의 연구 결과로 보아 흰쥐 콩팥에서 UT-A1은 속수질집합관의 세포질에 UT-A2는 짧은-헨레고리와 긴-헨레고리의 내림가는부분 상피세포의 세포막에 분포하고 있으며 서로 다른 기전에 의하여 조절되고 있는 것으로 생각된다.

Abstract

Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by a family of transporter proteins that includes renal urea transporters (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporters (UT-B). The cDNA of five isoforms of rat UT-A, UTA1, UT-A2, UT-A3, UT-A4, and UT-A5 have been cloned. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of UT-A (L194), which marked UT-A1, UT-A2 and UT-A4. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were divided into three group: control rats had free access to water, dehydrated rats were deprived of water for 3 d, and water loaded rats had free access to 3% sucrose water for 3 d before being killed. The kidneys were preserved by in vivo perfusion through the abdominal aorta with the 2% paraformaldehyde-lysine- periodate (PLP) or 8% paraformaldehyde solution for 10 min. The sections were processed for immunohistochemical studies using pre-embedding immunoperoxidase method and immunogold method. In the normal rat kidney, UT-A1 was expressed intensely in the cytoplasm of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cell and UT-A2 was expressed on the plasma membrane of the terminal portion of the shortloop descending thin limb (DTL) cells (type I epithelium) and of the long-loop DTL cells (type II epithelium) in the initial part of the inner medulla. Immunoreactivity for UT-A1 in the IMCD cells, was decreased in dehydrated animals whereas strongly increased in water loaded animals compared with control animals. In the short-loop DTL, immunoreactivity for UT-A2 was increased in intensity in both dehydrated and water loaded groups. However, in the long-loop DTL of the outer part of the inner medulla, immunoreactivity for UT-A2 was markedly increase in intensity in dehydrated group, but not in water loaded group. In conclusion, in the rat kidney, UT-A1 is located in the cytoplasm of IMCD cells, whereas UT-A2 is located in the plasma membrane of both the short-and long-loop DTL cells. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that UT-A1 and UT-A2 may have a different role in urea transport and are regulated by different mechanisms.

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