Objectives: This study was designed to develop and evaluate a stage matched exercise intervention program to effectively increase exercise behaviors in urban elders. Methods: The study included three phases: preliminary descriptive data collection, program development, and program evaluation. The data for the preliminary descriptive phase were collected between May and June 2001. The study participants were 89 urban elders who responded a questionnaire that included general characteristics, exercise related experiences, stage, and process of change in exercise behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, $x^2$-test, and content analysis. Development of the program was based on the preliminary data. and a literature review, and was guided by the tran theoretical model. It consisted of strategies to facilitate the process of changes used in each stage. Evaluation of the program was achieved from October to December 2001, using a case study method, in which eight urban female elders participated. Interviews were conducted on a weekly basis in the form of either an individual interview, or group discussion. Each elder subject received education in accordance with the program strategies and education materials. In the case that a subject's stage of change moved into another one, the scores for the process of change were re-measured. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results: The results were as follows: 1. Elders who participated in the preliminary data collection phase were over 75 years of age, and the majority of them were women. They had a higher educational level, and fewer number of illnesses than the subjects in other studies. Their stage of change was divided into pre-contemplation and maintenance. The social liberation scores were the highest across all stages of change. There was no difference between men and women on scores for processes of change in each stage. 2. The stage matched exercise intervention program that was developed in this study consisted of one counseling type program and three distinguished educational booklet materials. 3. The results of the case studies are as follows: 1) The study participants were 8 women between 75 and 87 years of age. At the first interviews, all of them were in the pre-contemplation stage. All of them reached the action stage before the 7th week. The scores for processes of change that were the focus in each stage increased more than the scores for other processes of change. During the early stages of change, experimental processes increased more than behavioral processes. However. this pattern was reversed during later stages of change. 2) Characteristics of the subjects in each stage were identical as presented at the tran theoretical model. The intervention strategies were effective in the transition occurred in any stage. 3) Barriers for exercise included unwillingness to exercise, fatigue, shortness of breath, and pain. Ways to overcome these barriers were 'learning an alternative exercise method that can be done at home', 'self-promising/ exercise-promising', and 'use of cues to exercise'. 4) The factors that affected the application of the program were consideration of age and personal preference in selecting an exercise pattern, individualized intervention, and use of education materials appropriate to elders. Women over 80 years of age preferred muscle strengthening and stretching exercise, because they can be easily done at home. They also preferred individualized interventions, materials that were easy to read, and education contents appropriate for elders. Conclusion: In conclusion, the stage matched exercise intervention program that considered the characteristics of the elders was effective to facilitate exercise behaviors of the elders.
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Song, Mi-Soon ; Kim, Seon-Ho 2011. "Effects of a Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Behavior Improving Program on Blood Pressure and Physical Activity for Older Adults with Hypertension" 한국콘텐츠학회논문지 = The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 11(12): 364~377