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Tributyltin (TBT) used world-wide in antifouling paints toy ships is a wide-spread environmental pollutant. At low doses, antiproliferative modes of action have been shown to be involved, whereas at higher doses apoptosis seems to be the mechanism of toxicity in reproductive organs by TBT. In this study, we investigated that the mechanisms underlying apoptosis induced by TBT in R2C cell. Effects of TBT on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in R2C cells by fluorescence detector. TBT significantly induced intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level in a time-dependent manner. The rise in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level was followed by a time-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the cytosol level. Simultaneously, TBT induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol. Furthermore, ROS production and the release of cytochrome c were reduced by BAPTA, an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator, indicating the important role of $Ca^{2+}$ in R2C during these early intracellular events. In addition, Z-DEVD FMB, a caspase -3 inhibitor, decreased apoptosis by TBT. Taken together, the present results indicated that the apoptotic pathway by TBT might start with an increase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level, continues with release of ROS and cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspases, and finally results in DNA fragmentation.

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참고문헌 (12)

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